AETHER (FREE) ENERGY.

CATEGORIESUNCATEGORISED

by David Wilcock from Tim Stouse Website

Compilation of energy from vacuum and space

The construction of worm holes and warp drive would require a very unusual form of energy.
Unfortunately, the same laws of physics that allow the existence of this “negative energy” also appear to limit its behavior
If a wormhole could exist, it would appear as a spherical opening to an otherwise distant part of the cosmos. In this doctored photograph of Times Square, the wormhole allows New Yorkers to walk to the Sahara with a single step, rather than spending hours on the plane to Tamanrasset. although such a wormhole does not break any known laws of physics, it would require the production of unrealistic amounts of negative energy.


Can a region of space contain less than nothing?
Common sense would say no; the most one could do is remove all matter and radiation and be left with vacuum. But quantum physics has a proven ability to confound intuition, and this case is no exception. A region of space, it turns out, can contain less than nothing. Its energy per unit volume – the energy density – can be less than zero.


Needless to say, the implications are bizarre. According to Einstein’s theory of gravity, general relativity, the presence of matter and energy warps the geometric fabric of space and time. What we perceive as gravity is the space-time distortion produced by normal, positive energy or mass.
But when negative energy or mass – so-called exotic matter – bends space-time, all sorts of amazing phenomena might become possible: traversable wormholes, which could act as tunnels to otherwise distant parts of the universe; warp drive, which would allow for faster-than-light travel; and time machines, which might permit journeys into the past.
Negative energy could even be used to make perpetual-motion machines or to destroy black holes. A Star Trek episode could not ask for more.
For physicists, these ramifications set off alarm bells. The potential paradoxes of backward time travel–such as killing your grandfather before your father is conceived–have long been explored in science fiction, and the other consequences of exotic matter are also problematic. They raise a question of fundamental importance: Do the laws of physics that permit negative energy place any limits on its behavior?
We and others have discovered that nature imposes stringent constraints on the magnitude and duration of negative energy, which (unfortunately, some would say) appear to render the construction of wormholes and warp drives very unlikely.
Double Negative
Before proceeding further, we should draw the reader’s attention to what negative energy is not.
It should not be confused with antimatter, which has positive energy. When an electron and its antiparticle, a positron, collide, they annihilate. The end products are gamma rays, which carry positive energy. If antiparticles were composed of negative energy, such an interaction would result in a final energy of zero.
One should also not confuse negative energy with the energy associated with the cosmological

by Lawrence H. Ford and Thomas A. Roman
Scientific American, January 2000
from TerryBoyce Website
recovered through WayBackMachine Website
Spanish version
The construction of worm holes and warp drive would require a very unusual form of energy.
Unfortunately, the same laws of physics that allow the existence of this “negative energy” also appear to limit its behavior

If a wormhole could exist, it would appear as a spherical opening to an otherwise distant part of the cosmos. In this doctored photograph of Times Square, the wormhole allows New Yorkers to walk to the Sahara with a single step, rather than spending hours on the plane to Tamanrasset. although such a wormhole does not break any known laws of physics, it would require the production of unrealistic amounts of negative energy.
Can a region of space contain less than nothing?
Common sense would say no; the most one could do is remove all matter and radiation and be left with vacuum. But quantum physics has a proven ability to confound intuition, and this case is no exception. A region of space, it turns out, can contain less than nothing. Its energy per unit volume – the energy density – can be less than zero.
Needless to say, the implications are bizarre. According to Einstein’s theory of gravity, general relativity, the presence of matter and energy warps the geometric fabric of space and time. What we perceive as gravity is the space-time distortion produced by normal, positive energy or mass.
But when negative energy or mass – so-called exotic matter – bends space-time, all sorts of amazing phenomena might become possible: traversable wormholes, which could act as tunnels to otherwise distant parts of the universe; warp drive, which would allow for faster-than-light travel; and time machines, which might permit journeys into the past.
Negative energy could even be used to make perpetual-motion machines or to destroy black holes. A Star Trek episode could not ask for more.


For physicists, these ramifications set off alarm bells. The potential paradoxes of backward time travel–such as killing your grandfather before your father is conceived–have long been explored in science fiction, and the other consequences of exotic matter are also problematic. They raise a question of fundamental importance: Do the laws of physics that permit negative energy place any limits on its behavior?
We and others have discovered that nature imposes stringent constraints on the magnitude and duration of negative energy, which (unfortunately, some would say) appear to render the construction of wormholes and warp drives very unlikely.
Double Negative
Before proceeding further, we should draw the reader’s attention to what negative energy is not.
It should not be confused with antimatter, which has positive energy. When an electron and its antiparticle, a positron, collide, they annihilate. The end products are gamma rays, which carry positive energy. If antiparticles were composed of negative energy, such an interaction would result in a final energy of zero.
One should also not confuse negative energy with the energy associated with the cosmological constant, postulated in inflationary models of the universe [see ” Cosmological Antigravity,” by Lawrence M. Krauss; SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN, January 1999]. Such a constant represents negative pressure but positive energy. (Some authors call this exotic matter; we reserve the term for negative energy densities.)
The concept of negative energy is not pure fantasy; some of its effects have even been produced in the laboratory. They arise from Heisenberg’s uncertainty principle, which requires that the energy density of any electric, magnetic or other field fluctuate randomly. Even when the energy density is zero on average, as in a vacuum, it fluctuates.


Thus, the quantum vacuum can never remain empty in the classical sense of the term; it is a roiling sea of “virtual” particles spontaneously popping in and out of existence [see “Exploiting Zero-Point Energy,” by Philip Yam; SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN, December 1997]. In quantum theory, the usual notion of zero energy corresponds to the vacuum with all these fluctuations.
So if one can somehow contrive to dampen the undulations, the vacuum will have less energy than it normally does–that is, less than zero energy.

Waves of light ordinarily have a positive or zero energy density at different points in space (top). But in a so-called squeezed state, the energy density at a particular instant in time can become negative at some locations (bottom). To compensate, the peak positive density must increase.
As an example, researchers in quantum optics have created special states of fields in which destructive quantum interference suppresses the vacuum fluctuations. These so-called squeezed vacuum states involve negative energy. More precisely, they are associated with regions of alternating positive and negative energy.


The total energy averaged over all space remains positive; squeezing the vacuum creates negative energy in one place at the price of extra positive energy elsewhere. A typical experiment involves laser beams passing through nonlinear optical materials [see “Squeezed Light,” by Richart E. Slusher and Bernard Yurke; SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN, May 1988]. The intense laser light induces the material to create pairs of light quanta, photons. These photons alternately enhance and suppress the vacuum fluctuations, leading to regions of positive and negative energy, respectively.
Another method for producing negative energy introduces geometric boundaries into a space. In 1948 Dutch physicist Hendrik B. G. Casimir showed that two uncharged parallel metal plates alter the vacuum fluctuations in such a way as to attract each other. The energy density between the plates was later calculated to be negative. In effect, the plates reduce the fluctuations in the gap between them; this creates negative energy and pressure, which pulls the plates together.
The narrower the gap, the more negative the energy and pressure, and the stronger is the attractive force.
The Casimir effect has recently been measured by Steve K. Lamoreaux of Los Alamos National Laboratory and by Umar Mohideen of the University of California at Riverside and his colleague Anushree Roy. Similarly, in the 1970s Paul C. W. Davies and Stephen A. Fulling, then at King’s College at the University of London, predicted that a moving boundary, such as a moving mirror, could produce a flux of negative energy.


For both the Casimir effect and squeezed states, researchers have measured only the indirect effects of negative energy.
Direct detection is more difficult but might be possible using atomic spins, as Peter G. Grove, then at the British Home Office, Adrian C. Ottewill, then at the University of Oxford, and one of us (Ford) suggested in 1992.
Gravity and Levity
The concept of negative energy arises in several areas of modern physics.
It has an intimate link with black holes, those mysterious objects whose gravitational field is so strong that nothing can escape from within their boundary, the event horizon.
In 1974 Stephen W. Hawking of the University of Cambridge made his famous prediction that black holes evaporate by emitting radiation [see “The Quantum Mechanics of Black Holes,” by Stephen W. Hawking; SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN, January 1977].
A black hole radiates energy at a rate inversely proportional to the square of its mass. Although the evaporation rate is large only for subatomic size black holes, it provides a crucial link between the laws of black holes and the laws of thermodynamics. The Hawking radiation allows black holes to come into thermal equilibrium with their environment.
At first glance, evaporation leads to a contradiction. The horizon is a one-way street; energy can only flow inward. So how can a black hole radiate energy outward? Because energy must be conserved, the production of positive energy – which distant observers see as the Hawking radiation – is accompanied by a flow of negative energy into the hole. Here the negative energy is produced by the extreme space-time curvature near the hole, which disturbs the vacuum fluctuations. In this way, negative energy is required for the consistency of the unification of black hole physics with thermodynamics.
The black hole is not the only curved region of space-time where negative energy seems to play a role. Another is the worm hole – a hypothesized type of tunnel that connects one region of space and time to another. Physicists used to think that wormholes exist only on the very finest length scales, bubbling in and out of existence like virtual particles [see “Quantum Gravity, by Bryce S. DeWitt; SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN, December 1983]. In the early 1960s physicists Robert Fuller and John A. Wheeler showed that larger wormholes would collapse under their own gravity so rapidly that even a beam of light would not have enough time to travel through them.
But in the late 1980s various researchers – notably Michael S. Morris and Kip S. Thorne of the California Institute of Technology and Matt Visser of Washington University – found otherwise.
Certain wormholes could in fact be made large enough for a person or spaceship. Someone might enter the mouth of a wormhole stationed on Earth, walk a short distance inside the wormhole and exit the other mouth in, say, the Andromeda galaxy. The catch is that traversable wormholes require negative energy. Because negative energy is gravitationally repulsive, it would prevent the wormhole from collapsing.


For a wormhole to be traversable, it ought to (at bare minimum) allow signals, in the form of light rays, to pass through it. Light rays entering one mouth of a wormhole are converging, but to emerge from the other mouth, they must defocus – in other words, they must go from converging to diverging somewhere in between [see illustration below]. This defocusing requires negative energy.
Whereas the curvature of space produced by the attractive gravitational field of ordinary matter acts like a converging lens, negative energy acts like a diverging lens.

Waves of light ordinarily have a positive or zero energy density at different points in space (top). But in a so-called squeezed state, the energy density at a particular instant in time can become negative at some locations (bottom). To compensate, the peak positive density must increase.
No Dilithium Needed
Such space-time contortions would enable another staple of science fiction as well: faster-than-light travel.
In 1994 Miguel Alcubierre Moya, then at the University of Wales at Cardiff, discovered a solution to Einstein’s equations that has many of the desired features of warp drive. It describes a space-time bubble that transports a starship at arbitrarily high speeds relative to observers outside the bubble. Calculations show that negative energy is required.
Warp drive might appear to violate Einstein’s special theory of relativity. But special relativity says that you cannot outrun a light signal in a fair race in which you and the signal follow the same route. When space-time is warped, it might be possible to beat a light signal by taking a different route, a shortcut.
The contraction of space-time in front of the bubble and the expansion behind it create such a shortcut [see illustration below].

Space-time bubble is the closest that modern physics comes to the “warp drive” of science fiction. It can convey a starship at arbitrarily high speeds. Space-time contracts at the front of the bubble, reducing the distance to the destination, and expands at its rear, increasing the distance from the origin (arrows). The ship itself stands still relative to the space immediately around it; crew members do not experience any acceleration. Negative energy (blue) is required on the sides of the bubble.
One problem with Alcubierre’s original model, pointed out by Sergei V. Krasnikov of the Central Astronomical Observatory at Pulkovo near St. Petersburg, is that the interior of the warp bubble is causally disconnected from its forward edge.
A starship captain on the inside cannot steer the bubble or turn it on or off; some external agency must set it up ahead of time. To get around this problem, Krasnikov proposed a “superluminal subway,” a tube of modified space-time (not the same as a wormhole) connecting Earth and a distant star.
Within the tube, superluminal travel in one direction is possible. During the outbound journey at sublight speed, a spaceship crew would create such a tube. On the return journey, they could travel through it at warp speed. Like warp bubbles, the subway involves negative energy. It has since been shown by Ken D. Olum of Tufts University and by Visser, together with Bruce Bassett of Oxford and Stefano Liberati of the International School for Advanced Studies in Trieste, that any scheme for faster-than-light travel requires the use of negative energy.


If one can construct wormholes or warp drives, time travel might become possible. The passage of time is relative; it depends on the observer’s velocity. A person who leaves Earth in a spaceship, travels at near lightspeed and returns will have aged less than someone who remains on Earth.
If the traveler manages to outrun a light ray, perhaps by taking a shortcut through a wormhole or a warp bubble, he may return before he left. Morris, Thorne and Ulvi Yurtsever, then at Caltech, proposed a wormhole time machine in 1988, and their paper has stimulated much research on time travel over the past decade.
In 1992 Hawking proved that any construction of a time machine in a finite region of space-time inherently requires negative energy.

View from the bridge of a faster-than-light starship as it heads in the direction of the Little Dipper (above) looks nothing like the star streaks typically depicted in science fiction.

As the velocity increases, stars ahead of the ship (left column) appear ever closer to the direction of motion and turn bluer in color. Behind the ship (right column), stars shift closer to a position directly astern, redden and eventually disappear from view altogether. The light from stars directly overhead or underneath remains unaffected.
Negative energy is so strange that one might think it must violate some law of physics.
Before and after the creation of equal amounts of negative and positive energy in previously empty space, the total energy is zero, so the law of conservation of energy is obeyed. But there are many phenomena that conserve energy yet never occur in the real world. A broken glass does not reassemble itself, and heat does not spontaneously flow from a colder to a hotter body. Such effects are forbidden by the second law of thermodynamics.
This general principle states that the degree of disorder of a system–its entropy–cannot decrease on its own without an input of energy. Thus, a refrigerator, which pumps heat from its cold interior to the warmer outside room, requires an external power source. Similarly, the second law also forbids the complete conversion of heat into work.


Negative energy potentially conflicts with the second law. Imagine an exotic laser, which creates a steady outgoing beam of negative energy. Conservation of energy requires that a byproduct be a steady stream of positive energy. One could direct the negative energy beam off to some distant corner of the universe, while employing the positive energy to perform useful work.
This seemingly inexhaustible energy supply could be used to make a perpetual-motion machine and thereby violate the second law. If the beam were directed at a glass of water, it could cool the water while using the extracted positive energy to power a small motor–providing a refrigerator with no need for external power. These problems arise not from the existence of negative energy per se but from the unrestricted separation of negative and positive energy.
Unfettered negative energy would also have profound consequences for black holes. When a black hole forms by the collapse of a dying star, general relativity predicts the formation of a singularity, a region where the gravitational field becomes infinitely strong. At this point, general relativity–and indeed all known laws of physics–are unable to say what happens next.
This inability is a profound failure of the current mathematical description of nature. So long as the singularity is hidden within an event horizon, however, the damage is limited. The description of nature everywhere outside of the horizon is unaffected.
For this reason, Roger Penrose of Oxford proposed the cosmic censorship hypothesis:
there can be no naked singularities, which are unshielded by event horizons.
For special types of charged or rotating black holes – known as extreme black holes – even a small increase in charge or spin, or a decrease in mass, could in principle destroy the horizon and convert the hole into a naked singularity.
Attempts to charge up or spin up these black holes using ordinary matter seem to fail for a variety of reasons.


One might instead envision producing a decrease in mass by shining a beam of negative energy down the hole, without altering its charge or spin, thus subverting cosmic censorship. One might create such a beam, for example, using a moving mirror. In principle, it would require only a tiny amount of negative energy to produce a dramatic change in the state of an extreme black hole.
Therefore, this might be the scenario in which negative energy is the most likely to produce macroscopic effects.
Not Separate and Not Equal
Fortunately (or not, depending on your point of view), although quantum theory allows the existence of negative energy, it also appears to place strong restrictions – known as quantum inequalities – on its magnitude and duration. These inequalities were first suggested by Ford in 1978.
Over the past decade they have been proved and refined by us and others, including Eanna E. Flanagan of Cornell University, Michael J. Pfenning, then at Tufts, Christopher J. Fewster and Simon P. Eveson of the University of York, and Edward Teo of the National University of Singapore.
The inequalities bear some resemblance to the uncertainty principle. They say that a beam of negative energy cannot be arbitrarily intense for an arbitrarily long time. The permissible magnitude of the negative energy is inversely related to its temporal or spatial extent. An intense pulse of negative energy can last for a short time; a weak pulse can last longer. Furthermore, an initial negative energy pulse must be followed by a larger pulse of positive energy [see illustration below].
The larger the magnitude of the negative energy, the nearer must be its positive energy counterpart. These restrictions are independent of the details of how the negative energy is produced. One can think of negative energy as an energy loan. Just as a debt is negative money that has to be repaid, negative energy is an energy deficit.
As we will discuss below, the analogy goes even further.

Pulses of negative energy are permitted by quantum theory but only under three conditions. First, the longer the pulse lasts, the weaker it must be (a, b). Second, a pulse of positive energy must follow. The magnitude of the positive pulse must exceed that of the initial negative one. Third, the longer the time interval between the two pulses, the larger the positive one must be – an effect known as quantum interest (c).
In the Casimir effect, the negative energy density between the plates can persist indefinitely, but large negative energy densities require a very small plate separation.
The magnitude of the negative energy density is inversely proportional to the fourth power of the plate separation. Just as a pulse with a very negative energy density is limited in time, very negative Casimir energy density must be confined between closely spaced plates.
According to the quantum inequalities, the energy density in the gap can be made more negative than the Casimir value, but only temporarily. In effect, the more one tries to depress the energy density below the Casimir value, the shorter the time over which this situation can be maintained.
When applied to wormholes and warp drives, the quantum inequalities typically imply that such structures must either be limited to submicroscopic sizes, or if they are macroscopic the negative energy must be confined to incredibly thin bands. In 1996 we showed that a submicroscopic wormhole would have a throat radius of no more than about 10-32 meter.
This is only slightly larger than the Planck length, 10-35 meter, the smallest distance that has definite meaning. We found that it is possible to have models of wormholes of macroscopic size but only at the price of confining the negative energy to an extremely thin band around the throat. For example, in one model a throat radius of 1 meter requires the negative energy to be a band no thicker than 10-21 meter, a millionth the size of a proton.
Visser has estimated that the negative energy required for this size of wormhole has a magnitude equivalent to the total energy generated by 10 billion stars in one year. The situation does not improve much for larger wormholes. For the same model, the maximum allowed thickness of the negative energy band is proportional to the cube root of the throat radius. Even if the throat radius is increased to a size of one light-year, the negative energy must still be confined to a region smaller than a proton radius, and the total amount required increases linearly with the throat size.
It seems that wormhole engineers face daunting problems. They must find a mechanism for confining large amounts of negative energy to extremely thin volumes. So-called cosmic strings, hypothesized in some cosmological theories, involve very large energy densities in long, narrow lines. But all known physically reasonable cosmic-string models have positive energy densities.
Warp drives are even more tightly constrained, as shown by Pfenning and Allen Everett of Tufts, working with us. In Alcubierre’s model, a warp bubble traveling at 10 times lightspeed (warp factor 2, in the parlance of Star Trek: The Next Generation) must have a wall thickness of no more than 10-32 meter.
A bubble large enough to enclose a starship 200 meters across would require a total amount of negative energy equal to 10 billion times the mass of the observable universe. Similar constraints apply to Krasnikov’s superluminal subway.
A modification of Alcubierre’s model was recently constructed by Chris Van Den Broeck of the Catholic University of Louvain in Belgium. It requires much less negative energy but places the starship in a curved space-time bottle whose neck is about 10-32 meter across, a difficult feat.
These results would seem to make it rather unlikely that one could construct wormholes and warp drives using negative energy generated by quantum effects.
Cosmic Flashing and Quantum Interest
The quantum inequalities prevent violations of the second law.
If one tries to use a pulse of negative energy to cool a hot object, it will be quickly followed by a larger pulse of positive energy, which reheats the object. A weak pulse of negative energy could remain separated from its positive counterpart for a longer time, but its effects would be indistinguishable from normal thermal fluctuations.
Attempts to capture or split off negative energy from positive energy also appear to fail. One might intercept an energy beam, say, by using a box with a shutter. By closing the shutter, one might hope to trap a pulse of negative energy before the offsetting positive energy arrives.
But the very act of closing the shutter creates an energy flux that cancels out the negative energy it was designed to trap [see illustration below].

Attempt to circumvent the quantum laws that govern negative energy inevitably ends in disappointment. The experimenter intends to detach a negative energy pulse from its compensating positive energy pulse. As the pulses approach a box (a), the experimenter tries to isolate the negative one by closing the lid after it has entered (b). Yet the very act of closing the lid creates a second positive energy pulse inside the box (c).
We have shown that there are similar restrictions on violations of cosmic censorship.
A pulse of negative energy injected into a charged black hole might momentarily destroy the horizon, exposing the singularity within. But the pulse must be followed by a pulse of positive energy, which would convert the naked singularity back into a black hole – a scenario we have dubbed cosmic flashing. The best chance to observe cosmic flashing would be to maximize the time separation between the negative and positive energy, allowing the naked singularity to last as long as possible.
But then the magnitude of the negative energy pulse would have to be very small, according to the quantum inequalities. The change in the mass of the black hole caused by the negative energy pulse will get washed out by the normal quantum fluctuations in the hole’s mass, which are a natural consequence of the uncertainty principle. The view of the naked singularity would thus be blurred, so a distant observer could not unambiguously verify that cosmic censorship had been violated.
Recently we, and also Frans Pretorius, then at the University of Victoria, and Fewster and Teo, have shown that the quantum inequalities lead to even stronger bounds on negative energy. The positive pulse that necessarily follows an initial negative pulse must do more than compensate for the negative pulse; it must overcompensate.
The amount of overcompensation increases with the time interval between the pulses. Therefore, the negative and positive pulses can never be made to exactly cancel each other. The positive energy must always dominate–an effect known as quantum interest. If negative energy is thought of as an energy loan, the loan must be repaid with interest. The longer the loan period or the larger the loan amount, the greater is the interest. Furthermore, the larger the loan, the smaller is the maximum allowed loan period. Nature is a shrewd banker and always calls in its debts.
The concept of negative energy touches on many areas of physics: gravitation, quantum theory, thermodynamics. The interweaving of so many different parts of physics illustrates the tight logical structure of the laws of nature.
On the one hand, negative energy seems to be required to reconcile black holes with thermodynamics. On the other, quantum physics prevents unrestricted production of negative energy, which would violate the second law of thermodynamics. Whether these restrictions are also features of some deeper underlying theory, such as quantum gravity, remains to be seen.
Nature no doubt has more surprises in store.
The Authors
Lawrence H. Ford and Thomas A. Roman have collaborated on negative energy issues for over a decade. Ford received his Ph.D. from Princeton University in 1974, working under John Wheeler, one of the founders of black hole physics. He is now a professor of physics at Tufts University and works on problems in both general relativity and quantum theory, with a special interest in quantum fluctuations.
His other pursuits include hiking in the New England woods and gathering wild mushrooms. Roman received his Ph.D. in 1981 from Syracuse University under Peter Bergmann, who collaborated with Albert Einstein on unified field theory. Roman has been a frequent visitor at the Tufts Institute of Cosmology during the past 10 years and is currently a professor of physics at Central Connecticut State University.
His interests include the implications of negative energy for a quantum theory of gravity. He tends to avoid wild mushrooms.

Further Information
BLACK HOLES AND TIME WARPS: EINSTEIN’S OUTRAGEOUS LEGACY. Kip S. Thorne. W. W. Norton, 1994.
LORENTZIAN WORMHOLES: FROM EINSTEIN TO HAWKING. Matt Visser. American Institute of Physics Press, 1996.
QUANTUM FIELD THEORY CONSTRAINS TRAVERSABLE WORMHOLE GEOMETRIES. L. H. Ford and T. A. Roman in Physical Review D, Vol. 53, No. 10, pages 5496-5507; May 15, 1996. Available at xxx.lanl.gov/abs/gr-qc/9510071 on the World Wide Web.
THE UNPHYSICAL NATURE OF WARP DRIVE. M. J. Pfenning and L. H. Ford in Classical and Quantum Gravity, Vol. 14, No. 7, pages 1743-1751; July 1997. Available at xxx.lanl.gov/abs/gr-qc/9702026 on the World Wide Web.
PARADOX LOST. Paul Davies in New Scientist, Vol. 157, No. 2126, page 26; March 21, 1998.
TIME MACHINES: TIME TRAVEL IN PHYSICS, METAPHYSICS, AND SCIENCE FICTION. Paul J. Nahin. AIP Press, Springer-Verlag, 1999 second edition.
THE QUANTUM INTEREST CONJECTURE. L. H. Ford and T. A. Roman in Physical Review D, Vol. 60, No. 10, Article No. 104018 (8 pages); November 15, 1999. Available at xxx.lanl.gov/abs/gr-qc/9901074 on the World Wide Web.
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Tesla’s Controversial Life and Death
by Jeane Manning
Electric power is everywhere, present in unlimited quantities and can drive the world’s machinery without the need of coal, oil, gas or any other fuels.
NikolaTesla
(1856-1943)
Colorado Springs, International Tesla Symposium,
July, 1988
—The man sitting next to me was in tears, shaking with quiet hiccupping sobs as if trying to be unobtrusive. He was rotund and wore thick glasses, but otherwise there was little to distinguish his appearance from that of two hundred other electrical engineers and other Tesla fans in the convention hall, still attentive to the scientist who had addressed them so eloquently and was leaving the podium.

It was not difficult to figure out why the man beside me was moved emotionally. The guest speaker, astrophysicist Adam Trombly, seemed to have choreographed his talk to lead to the moment. First he warmed up his audience by praising their hero. He reminded them that Nikola Tesla was the turn-of-the-century genius who fathered alternating current technologies, radar, fluorescent tubes, and bladeless turbines. Tesla also presented the first viable arguments for robots, rockets, and particle beams.
If society had followed up on the inventions Nikola Tesla envisioned at the turn of the century as he rode in a carriage near what is now this hotel, said Trombly,
“we wouldn’t have a fossil-fuel economy today. And J. P. Morgan, Rockefeller and a number of others wouldn’t have amassed extraordinary fortunes on the basis of that fossil fuel economy.”

FREE ENERGY FROM “VACUUM” OF SPACE

Trombly added that if Tesla’s vision had prevailed, we would be dipping into a clean and abundant energy, like taking water from the well of space.

After all, the theoretical basis for vacuum energy is now part of the physics literature:
. . . Not just in the literature of the fringe; it’s been in Physical Review since 1975, Review of Modern Physics since 1962, and in European physics literature since the early 50s. Harold Puthoff in his May 1987 article in Physical Review D pointed out that in order for the hydrogen atom in its ground state not to collapse, it had to be absorbing energy from the vacuum.
The astrophysicist saw this scientific work as further vindication of Tesla. Trombly said that in the nineteenth century Tesla prophesied that people would someday hook their machinery up to “the very wheelworks of nature”—the energy of vacuum space.

Trombly noted that electrons themselves must spontaneously appear out of the background field of energy, or, “we would have to invoke a rather Neanderthal concept that everything had its start in a certain moment.”
The speaker paused as if to let the audience catch his sarcasm, then added,
“because we have embraced this [Big Bang] cosmology for the last couple of decades, we have some real problems.”
In contrast, Trombly said, a more advanced cosmology sees everything as a modification of an energy-rich background field. Our physical bodies are relatively insignificant modifications of that field. The field itself has a potential energy equivalence, in grams, of 10-to-the-94th power grams per cubic centimeter. The human body, in comparison, has a gram equivalent of only about one gram per cubic centimeter.
That means that the background energy is 10 (wish 94 zeros after the ten) times more energy-rich than our physical bodies.

THE PLAN: TELL ROOSEVELT

It’s a lot of energy, Trombly said. Why not invent a pocket size device which could tap a kilowatt of this space energy? It could “just kind of scrape the surface, ever so slightly” of the 10-to-the-94th-power grams per cubic centimeter supply of energy.
“That’s what Nikola Tesla was scheduled to tell Franklin Delano Roosevelt in 1943. In 1943 he proposed to FDR that perhaps we should look carefully at the fact that we can get all the energy we need from any space we happen to be in.

“He didn’t show up for the meeting; he was found dead in his apartment— ‘natural causes.’”
The speaker added quietly that despite the official statement on the cause of death, then is some suspicion that Tesla’s paranoia about what he ate was more premonition than paranoia. Trombly then related an incident which fueled this suspicion. He had given a speech at the University of Toronto, Canada, for the 1981 conference on Non-Conventional Energy.
Afterward, an older gentleman with a heavy New York accent came up to Trombly and said he had been a detective at the time Nikola Tesla was found dead, and had been involved in the investigation. The old man had produced vintage credentials to show Trombly that he had indeed been a detective. The man appeared to be old enough to have been an adult in 1943.

In a soft voice Trombly said that the old man had said that,
“for national security reasons no one was to know that the coroner’s report showed that Tesla was poisoned.”
A shocked silence descended on the Colorado Springs meeting room when the Tesla Society heard this, coming from a physicist who would not lightly risk his reputation by relating such a story. The silence lifted as the audience honored Trombly with applause at the end of his speech.

To understand why Tesla’s story—the life of a dead inventor—can so grip the emotions of yet another generation of technophiles, we need to look at some highlights.

TESLA’S LEGACY

Tesla was a witty, elegantly-dressed loner, at the height of his fame in the late 1800s when the world knew he had invented the whole system of alternating current (AC) electrical generation and distribution which lit up the cities. But that was barely the beginning of his productivity.

Born in 1856 in the rural village of Smiljan in what became Yugoslavia, Nikola Tesla in his boyhood went from the highs of mystical communion with nature to the lows of suffering with cholera and the loss of his older brother. His father was a minister who wrote poetry and his mother a storyteller with a photographic memory. She was also an inventor of domestic laborsaving devices.

Nikola showed his true direction from an early age; at the age of five he invented a unique bladeless waterwheel and placed the little model in a creek. The child also built a motor powered by sixteen live June bugs. His father was not impressed. He insisted that Nikola would follow family tradition and be a clergyman, so he began his son’s education at a young age with rigorous mental exercises.

When he was of legal age, Nikola managed to get his father’s permission to study engineering instead of the ministry. After he completed his studies at the Austrian Polytechnic School in Graz and then in 1880 at the University of Prague, he worked for a European telephone company and upgraded their technology.

Meanwhile, a more difficult challenge which he had shouldered in his college days was always with him; he was determined to improve the electrical motor and dynamo. Dynamos naturally make alternating cur-rent, the type of electric flow which continually changes directions. Tesla intuitively felt that it should be possible to run a motor on AC electricity and eliminate the inefficient sparking of brushes from a commutator.
His theory went against textbook knowledge in those early days of electrification, when direct current (DC) was considered the only type of current that would run motors.

MAGNETIC WHIRLWIND

Despite ridicule from his engineering professor, Tesla maintained that there had to be a better way. He worked so intensely on this and other engineering problems that his health broke down. While Tesla recuperated, a friend who was a master mechanic and an athlete took him for long walks through Budapest. In February of 1882 one day while they walked in a park, Tesla was inspired by the setting sun. To his amazement, that is when he made a breakthrough to answering the technical challenge of making a workable AC electrical system to turn a motor.
He was reciting lines from the German poet Goethe’s Faust:
The glow retreats, done is the break of toil; It yonder hastes, new fields of life exploring. Ah, that no wing can lift me from the soil, Upon its track to follow, follow soaring!
Tesla was stopped in his tracks by a vivid vision. It was as if a 3-D holographic picture of a rotating magnetic field was in motion in front of his eyes and he could reach out and put his hands into it. He saw how the field—a magnetic whirlwind—was produced by alternating currents out of step with each other. He saw separate coils of wire, arranged as four segments of a circle.
The first alternating current would energize a coil creating an electromagnetic field which attracted the magnet and then faded. The second overlapping current would feed the next coil and drag the magnet around further and then fade and so on. He saw it as a process similar to the sun traveling around and “giving life wherever she goes.”

Speechless, Tesla waved his arms in excitement. His buddy tried to lead him to a nearby bench, but Tesla grabbed a stick to draw a diagram in the dust.
“See my motor here! Watch me reverse it,” Tesla blurted out.
His friend was afraid that Tesla had lost his mind. Tesla was indeed in another world at that moment. As he watched his vision move, he saw the electrical principle that later made the twentieth century operate.

His rotating magnetic field would not only mean a better motor, it would revolutionize the electrical industry. He mapped out refinements of the idea with several or even five overlapping currents at a time—the basis of a polyphase transmission system. But first he had to convince someone to finance the development of these world-changing inventions. A stepping-stone to that goal was a job in Paris later that year, where he attracted the attention of the Continental Edison Company by his successes as a troubleshooter who fixed their dynamos. Another step was to demonstrate the first induction motor for the mayor of Strasburg.
The mayor had invited wealthy potential investors to the demonstration, but they failed to comprehend Tesla’s vision of a future for the brushless motor.

DITCH-DIGGER TO MILLIONAIRE

Surely it would be welcomed in America, Tesla thought. At twenty-eight years of age he was ready to make his move to the land of opportunity, where he expected that his great discovery would be quickly developed for humanity’s use. Before Tesla left Paris, one of his bosses at Continental Edison handed him a letter introducing him to the famous inventor Thomas Alva Edison.
“I know two great men and you are one of them; the other is this young man,” the letter read.
When Tesla stepped off the ship in New York on June 6, 1884, he only had four pennies in his pocket, because he had been robbed on the way to the ship. But he did not at all resemble the stereotypical impoverished immigrant; he wore a bowler hat and stylish coat, and his posture was aristocratic. He still had the letter of introduction to Thomas Edison.

Edison, then age thirty-seven, had already proven his ability as a businessman as well as inventor. He was a hero to Tesla at first. The polite European admired Edison’s accomplishments—discoveries made by trial-and-error and with only grade-school level of formal education. Tesla ignored his rough manners. But Edison on the other hand repudiated Tesla’s theory on how to work with AC electricity; Edison used DC in his electric lamps and had invested all his efforts in DC technologies.

Tesla was put to work repairing and improving Edison’s DC dynamos and motors on board a ship. He also won Edison’s grudging respect by working eighteen-hour days in Edison’s Manhattan workshop, seven days a week, and by conquering difficult technical problems.

One day Tesla described how he could improve the efficiency of Edison’s dynamo, and Edison reportedly replied, “There’s fifty thousand dollars in it for you if you can do it.” The European immigrant worked tirelessly—thirty-two hours in one stretch. After months of work, the new machines were tested and found to measure up, and Edison prepared to profit from his improved dynamo.
When Tesla went to the boss and asked for the promised $50,000 bonus, however, Edison would not pay.
“Tesla,” he said, “you don’t understand our American humor.”
Nikola Tesla had a well-developed sense of humor, but when someone reneged on a verbal deal he was not amused. He walked out, and into a job on a crew digging ditches with pick and shovel.

Two years later Tesla’s luck changed; he had the opportunity to develop his “polyphase system” of AC and patented the AC motor, generator and transformer. By 1891, Tesla had forty patents on his AC induction motor and polyphase system.

An industrialist and inventor of the railroad air brake, George Westinghouse of Pittsburgh, helped Tesla to change history. Westinghouse, a stocky, adventurous man with a walrus mustache, shared Tesla’s vision of a power system that could harness hydroelectric resources such as Niagara Falls and could send high-voltage electricity on wires over vast distances. He bought all of Tesla’s patents on the polyphase AC system, and signed a contract to pay Tesla a million dollars cash, plus royalties of $2.50 per horsepower produced by the system.
Tesla thought he would never have to worry about money again; he could invent to his heart’s content.

HIGH STAKES

One of the first challenges that Westinghouse and Tesla faced together was what was called the War of the Currents—the AC/DC battle. It was a time when America’s power grid had not yet been built but DC proponents were nevertheless becoming an entrenched interest group stubbornly lighting the use of alternating current (AC) for generating, sending and using electricity. Thomas Edison led the opposition. His own inventions used direct current (DC).
However, DC does not travel well. To give people electrical lights, heat and other uses of the current, a power plant had to be built for every square mile served. At the end of a mile of DC power line, light bulbs barely glowed. Skyscrapers and their elevators would have been impossible to build if Edison’s views had won.

Tesla knew that AC was the better system for electrical distribution; it could easily travel for hundreds of miles down very slender wires at high pressures (high voltage) and then transformers could reduce the voltage for household use.

In the War of the Currents, most of the casualties were animals. During the time that Edison gave speeches defending the merits of DC over AC, the neighborhood around his New Jersey laboratory was mysteriously losing dogs and cats. Throughout 1887 Edison or his staff grabbed animals off the street by day, and at night invited reporters and other guests to watch what happened when an unsuspecting dog was pushed onto a tin sheet and electrocuted with high voltages—using the Tesla/Westinghouse AC current, of course. Edison referred to electrocuting as “Westinghousing.”

Carrying on this strategy of linking AC with electrocution and death, the Edison camp distributed scare pamphlets warning that Westinghouse wanted to put this deadly AC current into every American home. However, Edison omitted the fact that the current would first be reduced in voltage. Through this disinformation campaign, Edison was determined to sway the public toward his DC technology, inefficient as it was.

To answer accusations against the safety of AC, Tesla in turn developed showmanship; he proved that he could conduct AC through his own body without ill effects. He stood on a platform in white tie and tails and cork-bottomed shoes. Bolts of electricity crackled and snapped, and he allowed several hundred thousand volts to dance over his body and light the bulbs in his hands.
However, although the voltage (pressure) of the electricity was high, he reduced the amperage (quantity) and used high frequencies. That type of electrical current crawls over a body and therefore doesn’t reach vital organs. As an argument against Edison it was cheating, because domestic AC switches back and forth on a conductor 60 times a second, not thousands of times as in high frequencies.

Edison, however, played dirtier. He persuaded state prison authorities to kill a death-row prisoner with AC current instead of executing him by hanging. It was a further attempt to popularize the phrase “to Westinghouse” as a replacement for “to electrocute.” Prison officials miscalculated the amount of current needed to kill the condemned man, and newspaper reporters witnessed a messy smoky execution.

Despite Edison’s efforts, Tesla and Westinghouse won the Battle of the Currents. In 1892 Westinghouse built an AC system for lighting the 1893 world fair in Chicago.

TYCOONS PUT SQUEEZE ON WESTINGHOUSE

A big hydroelectric project was the second major victory for AC supporters; in 1895 Tesla’s first generating unit was put into operation at Niagara Falls. Eventually, Tesla’s distribution system delivered immense amounts of electrical power across the continent. Since Westinghouse had signed a contract giving Tesla $2.50 per horsepower, Tesla could have died as a multibillionaire.

“Morganization” intervened, however, with cut-throat practices directed against George Westinghouse. Business competitors in the real-life game of Monopoly tried to squeeze him out of the power picture and gave him an ultimatum:
“get rid of your contract with Tesla or you’re finished.”
When Westinghouse laid his cards in front of Tesla and admitted to being in financial trouble, Tesla demonstrated his priorities. He remembered that

Westinghouse had believed in him and had invested in the new AC patents when others had not had such courage. Therefore, so that Westinghouse would survive financially and the technology would be developed, Tesla took a cash settlement and walked away from the millions of future dollars assigned to him by the per-horsepower deal. He tore up the lucrative contract in order to help a friend.

Meanwhile, the power monopolists were poised to grab as much money as possible. When Tesla’s inventions made it possible to send electrical power from huge waterfalls across the states, tycoons prepared to make fortunes in utility companies. These captains of industry wanted the 60-cycle-per-second AC power system to continue to grow and cover the earth with power poles, transformers and wires.
Transmission towers would march up and down mountainsides and across deserts. Power companies would dam rivers for hydro power and make the people pay for every watt sent over the companies’ copper wires. The power magnates did not want the inventor to uproot this growing forest of money trees.

J. Pierpont Morgan pulled the strings that formed the huge company General Electric, for example, and had already bought up copper mines knowing that transmission wires would eventually crisscross every industrialized continent.

But Tesla was a discoverer, not a business shark. His new plan was wireless transmission of energy—free energy for anyone who sticks a tuned receiver into the ground while Tesla’s tuned transmitter was resonating frequencies!

The financiers on Wall Street didn’t catch the drift of Tesla’s “wireless” talk right away. The plan was so futuristic that it was literally over every-one’s head. But he was giving enough clues for anyone who had been ready to catch his vision. In the same year that the lighting of the World’s Fair dazzled society, he talked about “earth resonance” at a lecture to the prestigious Franklin Institute.
Earth resonance was part of his vision for wireless power. The secret is sending out the correct frequency—speed of vibration—with electrical pulses. Just as a piano string will vibrate when another instrument at a distance hits the same note as its tuned frequency, wireless receivers would resonate with the transmitter frequencies. The power would be tuned in just like you tune in a radio station. Some Tesla researchers also believe that he could have resonated the cavity between the ionosphere and the ground.
Just like the cavity within a violin, this spherical Schumann cavity has its own resonant frequency. Disregarding the danger of making his own previous inventions obsolete, in the next few years he thought up the processes necessary for futuristic wireless transmission.
While the business community assumed he was talking about wireless communications signals only, he had a far Suppressed Inventions and Other Discoveries grander plan—sending power wirelessly in order that anyone at any place on the planet could plug into freely-available electricity. Before his financiers figured out where Tesla’s research was leading, it was briefly funded by men such as Colonel John Jacob Astor as well as Morgan.

The same year that Tesla’s generator turned on the power from Niagara Falls, he suffered a major setback. One night in March of 1895 his laboratory burned down, with all files and apparatus destroyed. When he returned from a meeting, he discovered the smoking mess of twisted metal that had fallen through two floors to the foundations of the building. Afterward he wandered through the streets in a daze for hours.
The loss of his papers meant that he could not document what he had been working on. For example, later that year the discovery of X-rays by German physicist Wilhelm Conrad Roentgen was made public.
Tesla’s papers could have proven that he had been the first to take pictures by X-ray.

GOD OF LIGHTNING

Next Tesla concentrated on patenting his methods for sending power and messages wirelessly. In 1889 to 1890, Tesla moved his operations to the high country of Colorado Springs, Colorado, to test his new ideas and develop the art of tuned radio frequency. He built a high-voltage laboratory on a hillside cow pasture. Inside his lab was the world’s largest Tesla coil, and the building was topped by a flagpole-like structure. While experimenting on a massive scale, toward his new goal of sending electromagnetic vibrations throughout Earth, he predicted that Tesla coils could also be pocket-size message receiving devices.

Tesla’s God of Lightning experiments in Colorado Springs were truly dramatic. Thunder reverberated for at least 15 miles when he fired up the electrical discharges. His massive 52-foot diameter Tesla coils discharged more than 12 million volts at a burst, and threw electric sparks of more than a hundred feet in length from the copper ball on top of his pole.
The townspeople sometimes thought his laboratory was on fire. The ground under their feet was so highly charged that spectators at a distance from the laboratory would see tiny sparks between their heels and the sandy soil when they walked, according to biographer Margaret Cheney. Half a mile away, horses would get a shock from their metal horseshoes and would bolt in panic.

The inventor did start a fire one day, when his “magnifying transmitter” experiment accidentally burned out the power plant for the town of Colorado Springs. The town went dark and the overloaded dynamo was in flames. It took Tesla’s team of technicians a week to repair the town’s generator.

WARDENCLYFFE

Satisfied that he knew enough to carry out his magnificent vision of a world telegraphy system and wireless power, Tesla returned to New York. He hired an architect to design a building with a 154 foot high wooden tower, to be used as a huge transmitter. The tower was topped with a doughnut-shaped copper electrode.
As the design changed, the structure evolved to the shape of a giant mushroom sprouting above the low hills of Long Island. Tesla named the project Wardenclyffe, envisioning a station to send out power as well as to broadcast communication channels of all radio wavelengths. The tower was nearly finished in 1902, along with the square brick building, 100 feet on each side, built below it for a power-house and laboratory.

Tesla predicted that when people experience wireless transmission of electrical power affecting their everyday lives,
“humanity will be like an ant heap stirred up with a stick.”
The excitement that he anticipated never had a chance to develop, however. Work on the structure halted in 1906 after J. Pierpont Morgan stopped funding it.

Some historians believe that Morgan had been sincerely interested in wireless broadcasting. Others argue that Morgan’s motivation for briefly funding Tesla’s tower was to gain control over Tesla. As long as Tesla was an uncontrolled loner, a wild card in the industrial world, his inventions could threaten Morgan’s investments in the electrical industry. If wireless transmission of power worked, of course, the value of power utilities and copper mines would plummet. Morgan’s companies such as General Electric could have toppled.

While Tesla’s fortunes went downhill starting in 1906, Morgan would not reply to Tesla’s letters, and other financiers on Wall Street also turned their backs on Tesla for the remainder of his life. In a letter begging an associate for financial help, Tesla mentioned one of the tactics used to discredit him.
“My enemies have been so successful in representing me as a poet and a visionary . ..”
One of Tesla’s biographers is Dr. Marc Seifer, a psychology professor who researched a psycho-biography of Tesla for his doctoral thesis. Seifer believes that Tesla sowed the seeds of his own financial ruin by not making clear to J. P. Morgan, Sr. his intention to broadcast power from Wardenclyffe as well as to send communications.
However, Seifer also thinks that Morgan could have transcended his own limitations and given Tesla the money to complete at least the radio portion of the tower “and the world would have evolved in a totally different way.”

MORGAN SABOTAGED TESLA DEALS

Instead, from that time onward Tesla was unable to build the technologies which he believed would help humanity. Seifer mentions the influential men whom Morgan paid a visit when they were ready to close a deal with Tesla. “Morgan purposefully scuttled any future ways Tesla could raise money.”

He was deeply in debt, having plowed all his resources into his experiments and Wardenclyffe. Having a strong taste for the elegant life, he had run up an outrageous tab in his more than twenty years of living at the Waldorf-Astoria hotel. The hotel took the deed for Wardenclyffe in lieu of payment. Seifer feels that one reason for Tesla handing over the property to the owner of the Waldorf-Astoria is that he thought he could eventually resurrect the project.
His plan was to develop an invention that would be a big money-maker, and his hopes were pinned onto his bladeless turbine/pump. Tesla expected the bladeless turbine to replace the gasoline engine in auto-mobiles, ocean liners and airplanes and then he would use the subsequent wealth to complete his project for world-wide wireless power.

Seifer concludes that one of Tesla’s motivations for another invention, a beam weapon which was also called a death ray, was to convince his government that the Wardenclyffe tower should be saved for military use. By attaching a beam weapon to it, he could have claimed that the tower was a strategic property for shooting down incoming aircraft or submarines during World War I.

His efforts were further scattered during this time by a lawsuit against Guglielmo Marconi, the Italian who had hung around his laboratory before the fire of March 13, 1885. In 1901 Marconi sent a signal across the Atlantic which in the eyes of the public secured Marconi’s claim to be the inventor of radio.
When Tesla had heard the news of the transatlantic wireless signal, he reportedly said,
“Marconi is a good fellow. Let him continue. He’s using seventeen of my patents.”
By the time Tesla tried to collect the hundreds of thousands of dollars owed him so he could rescue Wardenclyffe, most of his patents had elapsed. He did resurrect his main radio patent in 1914, Seifer said. Tesla did not win his suit against Marconi, not because of the legal strength of his case but because World War I interfered.
The assistant attorney general of the time, Franklin Roosevelt, and President Woodrow Wilson pushed for a law saying there could be no patent disputes during the war. Seifer added that by the time the war was over it was much more difficult for Tesla to sue. (Eight months after his death, the U.S. Supreme Court ruled that Tesla’s radio-related patents preceded Marconi’s. Even after the court’s decision, school history books continue to credit Marconi for in venting radio.)

Tesla was squeezed out of the picture by the force of corporate interests.
“David Sarnoff was Marconi’s front man, and Sarnoff created RCA and NBC and purposely kept Tesla’s patents out of the loop,” Seifer said. “So when people like Hammond and Marconi were getting $500,000 at a clip for their wireless patents, Tesla got nothing.”

RADIO CORPORATION ELBOWS HIM OUT

The picture of corporate ruthlessness is reinforced by the experience of the late Philo T. Farnsworth, an inventor of television. In Philo’s biography, Elma G. Farnsworth told about Sarnoff’s treatment of her husband, and about the early 1930s when RCA dominated the radio industry to the point where no one could make broadcasting or receiving equipment with-out paying patent royalties to RCA.
“RCA’s policy regarding patents, licenses, and royalties was very simple: the company was formed to collect patent royalties. It never paid them.”
Elma Farnsworth added that corporations have always been ambivalent toward inventors and patents. “Although they regard patents as a huge bulwark when protecting their own monopolies, they see the patent system as a great nuisance when it upholds the rights of an individual.” She gives the example of two pioneers of radio who battled RCA for their rights unsuccessfully. Dr. Lee DeForest died bankrupt and Major Howard Armstrong put on his coat, hat and gloves and walked out the high window of his New York Apartment.

Tesla never threatened suicide, but he did admit to despairing. Before he could make much progress with the bladeless turbine, his dream of saving the Wardenclyffe structure began to crumble. For one thing, the new owner saw no value in the project and did not post guards on the property. Since the businessman believed that Tesla was just a vain dreamer, he did not try to protect the contents of the laboratory and it was vandalized and stripped.

The Wardenclyffe tower was dynamited in 1917, but not by the government as some legends would have it. Instead it was torn down to be sold as scrap metal. After this dramatic turning point in Tesla’s career, he began to disappear from public view.

HOPES PINNED ON TURBINE

Perhaps partly to run away from the sight of the ruined Wardenclyffe structure, the inventor traveled to Chicago. That city held memories of earlier, more triumphant, times such as the World’s Fair of 1893 which showcased his AC technologies. Now he spent time with biographer Hugo Gernsback as well as worked on technical problems with the round disks in his bladeless turbine. In his day the available steel was not strong enough far anything moving at such a high speed.
(Again, he was ahead of his time and in the 1990s engineers are beginning to catch up and even improve on his designs. The Tesla Engine Builders’ Association is a cooperative network of researchers doing just what their name says. This is perhaps the most practical Tesla invention at this time, and could be extensively replacing fossil fuel or nuclear power generation.)

From Chicago he moved again, living alternately in Milwaukee and New York for a few years. During this time he sold a speedometer which he invented to a watch company. It was installed in the luxury cars of the day and provided him some income. Among other inventions which earlier had fleetingly provided income was a fountain which he designed in 1915.
He figured out how to power a decorative fountain to get aesthetically-pleasing effects with little water.

DESPERATELY SEEKING FUNDS

Was Tesla also a would-be defense contractor? Tesla had a liaison in Germany before World War I and in 1916 to 1917 they planned to put the bladeless turbine in tanks and other war vehicles. This was the reason that J. P. Morgan, Jr. doled out more than $20,000 to Tesla to develop the turbine, Seifer notes.

In a recent book, Dr. Seifer chronicles Tesla’s “lost years,” from 1915 onward, when the inventor tried unsuccessfully to raise money for resurrecting his wireless project. Seifer encountered correspondence and articles linking Tesla to such shadowy figures as a Nazi propagandist and a German munitions manufacturer from whom the desperate inventor was trying to get funding by selling his death ray concepts. Those attempts ended when war was declared between their two countries.
About Tesla’s links to warlords during the 1930s, Seifer says,
“There’s a whole secret side here that needs to be explored further. I did the best I could.”
Unknown to most Teslaphiles, the inventor was not always based in New York during those hidden years. For example, around the year 1925 to 1926 he was in Philadelphia working on the turbine design, and in 1931 he was in Massachusetts working with the head of U.S. Steel in an attempt to put his turbines in the steel mills.

Seifer says a 300 page book was written about Tesla’s turbine, but it has not surfaced since the inventor’s death.

CAR RAN ON FREE ENERGY?

Tesla kept a much lower profile regarding another invention. The story— seemingly impossible to document, generations later—is that when he was around sixty-five, Tesla or his helpers pulled the gasoline engine out of a new Pierce-Arrow and stuck in an 80 horsepower alternating current electric motor. But no batteries! Instead, he bought a dozen vacuum tubes, wires and resistors.
Soon he had the parts arranged in a box which sat beside him in the front seat of the car. One account says the mysterious box was two feet long, a foot wide and six inches high, with two rods sticking out of it. From the driver’s side, Tesla reached over and pushed the rods in, and the car took off at up to 80 miles per hour. He is reported to have test-driven the loaned Pierce-Arrow for a week. If this story is true, the secret of his power source died with him.

There are clues that indicate he could well have driven a car on “free energy.” For example, Tesla wrote to his friend Robert Johnson, editor of Century magazine, that he had invented an electrical generator that didn’t need an outside source of power. In the early 1930s, Tesla announced that he had, more than twenty-five years earlier, harnessed cosmic rays and made them operate a moving device.

Trying to discover what he had been talking about, today’s researchers comb through his patents, such as “Apparatus for the Utilization of Radiant Energy,” U.S. Patent No. 658,957, 1901. The research indicates Tesla was working on his “free energy” generator before he hammered out a major article for Robert Johnson’s June 1900 issue of Century, in which he describes sending power wirelessly.
He writes that a device for getting energy directly from the sun would not be very profitable and there-fore would not be the best solution. Researchers such as scientist Oliver Nichelson of Utah read this to mean that Tesla had learned that a “free energy” device would never be allowed to reach the market, but a system in which someone could still profit by selling power delivered wirelessly had more of a chance of being allowed by the financial tycoons.

Today’s creative-edge physicists may be vindicating Tesla’s so-called free energy invention with their theories about the possibility of tapping incredibly abundant—estimated to be the energy equivalent of 10-to-the-94th-power grams per cubic centimeter —supply of energy from the vacuum of space that Adam Trombly spoke about.

GOVERNMENT AGENTS TAKE HIS PAPERS

According to his biographers, Tesla died in genteel poverty in a hotel room in 1943 at age eighty-seven. His memory was honored in a funeral service at St. John’s cathedral, attended by more than two thousand people including the elite of the day.

Although Tesla had become a United States citizen in 1899 and valued his citizenship highly for the next fifty-nine years, he was strangely treat-ed like a recent immigrant at the end of his life. After his death the public was told that his papers had been shipped back to Yugoslavia, and that authorities in Washington had sent in the Custodian of Alien Property to deal with his belongings. U.S. government agents reportedly had first crack at his safe and other papers. Later a Tesla museum was built in Zagreb, Yugoslavia, to house whatever Tesla memorabilia survived the events after his death.

When biographer Margaret Cheney looked into the military’s possession of Tesla papers taken from the Office of Alien Properties, the trail led to Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio. The response from Wright-Patterson AFB under the Freedom of Information Act in 1980 was that “The organization (Equipment Laboratory) that performed the evaluation of Tesla’s papers was deactivated several years ago. After conducting an extensive search of lists of records retired by that organization, in which we found no mention of Tesla’s papers, we concluded that the documents were destroyed at the time the laboratory was deactivated.”

Believe that or not, the fact remains that a great discoverer was left out of our history books but is known among researchers of alternative technology. Does the military own Tesla technology information which could be used for cleaning up the planet instead of for destructive purposes? Did those industrialists who have monopolies on coal and oil also try to control Tesla’s legacy?
Consider his claim of inventing an electrical generator that would not consume any fuel.
“In many generations pass, our machinery will be driven by a power obtainable at any point in the universe,” Tesla said. “…Throughout space there is energy.”
If that energy had been harnessed, those who profit by the myth of scarcity would not have been able to drum up support for their oil wars.

Whether he died of natural causes or was deliberately given arsenic, the story of Nikola Tesla is clouded by the actions of those who lacked his dedication to improving the lot of humanity.

The man softly crying as he sat beside me at the Tesla symposium may have been a finely-tuned receiver for the prevailing mood in the room. His fist clenched when Adam Trombly said,
“Thomas Edison was promoted and promoted, but Nikola Tesla was a genius who was orders of magnitude greater.”
REFERENCES

  1. Bearden, Tom. Planetary Association for Clean Energy, Vol. 8 (1995), p. 10.
  2. Bird, Christopher, and Nichelson, Oliver. “Great Scientist, Forgotten Genius Nikola Tesla,” New Age Magazine (1967).
  3. Cheney, Margaret. Tesla: Man Out of Time. New York: Dell Publishing, 1981.
  4. Farnsworth, Elma G. Distant Vision: Romance and Discovery on an Invisible Frontier. Salt Lake City: PemberlyKent Publishers, 1990.
  5. Marvin, Carolyn. When Old Technologies Were New. Oxford University Press,1988.
  6. The Suppression of Fuel Savers and Alternate Energy Resources 427
  7. O’Neill, John J. Prodigal Genius. California: Angriff Press, 1978.
  8. Peterson, Gary. “Nikola Tesla, Man with Many Solutions,” Journal of Power and Resonance. Colorado Springs, 1990.
  9. Quinby, E.J., USN Commander (ret). “Nikola Tesla, World’s Greatest Engineer.” Proceedings of Radio Club of America Inc., Fall 1971.
  10. Rauscher, Elizabeth. Planetary Association for Clean Energy, Vol. 8(1995), p. 9.Seifer, Marc.
  11. Nikola Tesla & John Hays Hammond Jr., A History of Remote Control Robotics. Fall River, Massachusetts.
  12. Tesla, Nikola. “My Inventions: The Autobiography of Nikola Tesla,” Electrical Experimenter Magazine, 1919. (Vermont: Hart Brothers, 1982).
  13. Tesla, Nikola, “The Problem of Increasing Human Energy,” The Century Illustrated Monthly Magazine (New York, June 1900).
  14. The Tesla Journal. (Lackawanna, New York, 1989/90).
  15. Wohleber, Curt. “The Work of the World,” Invention & Technology (Winter, 1992).
  16. Wright, Charles. “The Great AC/DC War,” 1988 International Tesla Symposium, Colorado Springs.
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    The Negative Cycle Mindscape

The following considerations are largely derived from alien inputs and should, in part, reflect the thinking of a larger, off-world community.
If we define the mindscape of an individual or community in negative or alt-cycle (gravitic) terms, which most aliens do, then the physics of mind are marginally extra-dimensional. I know that may sound confusing to some readers, so here’s an explanation in simple, graphic terms.

The physics of mind involve subtle fluctuations that allow for an information capacity that exceeds old notions of the human brain’s information “byte” capacity. This is possible because the fractional values (not whole numbered) of a mind’s information involve larger, universal relationships. Once an individual becomes sensitized to negative energy fluctuations, either through a subtle, seemingly darkened inner attentiveness or through direct interaction with aliens (and humans) who think in such terms, finer extra-dimensional values begin to suggest themselves.
The extent to which they do so is astounding and owes to a pre-existing, evolved kind of science. There is more than meets the eye.

Those seemingly elusive negative energy fluctuations are an underlying part of any atom and the space-time around you. As astrophysicist Paul Davies notes, any moving membrane, i.e. any quantum’s spinning “surface,” should create negative energy fluctuations. Negative energy is also measured in the Casimir effect, which occurs in empty space around us. Scientists use the Casimir effect to levitate objects.

Any slightest change in time, i.e. during your thought processes, cycles both through your mind and the larger universal relationships that define it.
In short, your thoughts resonate ever so slightly within the deeper dimensions of a larger universe. It’s as though your thoughts pull on tightly wound strings of tension at the sub-atomic level, causing a slight, but accessible change in the finer, airy dimensions surrounding you. In a sense, when your mind pulls on those tiny strings, some of the information “out there” can resonate back to you.
You move beyond old bounds and a more advanced awareness can spread in you. *Usually, the universe resonates into you more than you resonate into the universe, (i.e. that perpetual resonance of energy in your atoms).

By being ever so slightly attentive to such goings on, your mind becomes capable of a much greater awareness. Depending on your circumstance, you may begin to interact with aliens and will be able to compete more effectively with alien offenders. I know this sounds strange to some readers. Some say scientists assume there are extra dimensions, yet we don’t know how to access them. They’re wrong.
Many humans do so daily, while most aliens do so as a matter of course. They define themselves in such terms. To be competent, they must do so. Again, they converge inwardly while resonating outwardly.

If you don’t think in terms of extra dimensions just yet, don’t worry. Simply relax and take time to think it all through.
Telepathy and expanded sensitivities don’t develop overnight. It may take a while. Your key to doing so may be to practice toh shi, for example. Or, you may begin to notice a finer multiplicity of perspective in your mind that you can inversely pulse and expand – in a more elastic way, unlike the fixed and rigid linearity of old concepts. You may find yourself subtly feeling into those tiny moments between moments, so to speak.
You may begin to sense a deeper resonance among the subtle goings on around you. In either case, when you begin to feel into hyperspace, you’ll find yourself actively picking up on finer, extra details in the universe around you.

However, if and when you begin to do so it won’t be like you’ve suddenly broken through to the universal information bank. Instead, your awareness will be both conditioned by, and limited to, the extent of your thinking, the subjects that you consider and the way that you consider them. In a sense, it’s a co-awareness involving shared, collective identities, rather than a direct manipulation. Be patient and remember: you’re entering upon a larger interaction where shared resonance of mind is more common.
As such, your thoughts are transparent; they can be known by others, which can be discomforting, at first.
Eventually, you’ll see that such transparency is the only way to keep the universe honest because everyone can be held accountable. Aliens use thought-activated psychotronic technology to enhance this capacity.

The problem is that some alien societies, even some of the so-called hyperversals, have had difficulty evolving past Big Brother-like abuses that can accompany the use of mind-activated psychotronic systems.
David Jacobs’ detailed abductee reports about gray-human hybrids help to illustrate this fact. (See The Threat). In a sense, some humans represent a fresh break from such conformity, given our attention to individual rights and liberties.
To aliens, humans represent a kind of physical rigor and genetic diversity, plus an extension of legal guarantees against abusive government. However, honesty can be painful. To admit the truth about offending regimes here, among us, can be trying in the short term, yet if we don’t do so we remain trapped in a vicious cycle.

Given their long lives and ancient bureaucracies, aliens can degrade, so we need to be honest and critical of them, however sticky that may seem.
On a universal scale, honesty is the tie that binds; it is required. Some aliens grow very old and may be pressured by large regimes to do wrong. Being newcomers, humans are seen as posing a clean, unfiltered critique, at times. Imagine how you’d feel if you were an alien who argued for basic rights and an end to coercive abductions yet your government was so large and convoluted that it continued to do so, anyway.

Sometimes we see relatively good aliens who veil themselves and do wrong in order to provoke humans into sharpening our critique of alien offenders. It’s a dodgy, backhanded tactic, but it happens.
Among aliens, manipulative skullduggery is rife yet is transparent to patient observers

Negative energy

Negative energy will be explained in clear and easy detail in the next chapter. Suffice it to say, aliens generally assume that most humans are relatively naive, in part because they don’t know about negative energy and how it can connect across the universe. From an alien perspective, humans who don’t know about negative energy are easy to take advantage of.
They can be abducted and deceived, using fairly simple alien technology.

For example, Dr. John Mack noted that in order to comfort the humans they abduct, aliens might suggest that the aliens came to Earth from another dimension or the future, as though it were a magical realm the abductee can’t understand. Meanwhile, aliens of the sort are physical, biological forms who use fairly basic technology.

How important is this seemingly extra-dimensional “negative energy” in an alien’s education?
On a gray alien’s planet, for example, a five year-old alien child who hasn’t begun to grasp how negative energy connects through hyperspace would be considered mentally handicapped. By the age of ten or eleven, a relatively advanced understanding of hyperspace is expected. Readers should remember that, here on Earth, any middle school child who can learn the basics about light waves and atoms can easily comprehend hyperspace. Easily.
You may not realize it, but you already think in terms of extra-dimensions, i.e. the past, the future, the universe, and more. By the time you finish the next chapter, negative energy and hyperspace should be easy for you to understand.

Many of the alien sources for this book have hinted at such science. Grays have hinted indirectly, while Haven aliens, described in Alex Newald’s book Coevolution, and other aliens have described it in more detail: negative energy and related phenomena are used to manipulate computer data, to achieve faster-than-light deep space travel, and to effect faster-than-light communications.
Some Milky Way aliens and other, hyper-advanced aliens (of yet-unspecified historical duration) have resonated on such themes, hinting, for example, that the larger universal ecology depends on preventing the overuse of such energy by greedy, oversized populations. The two latter-noted groups of aliens have gone so far as to suggest that we, humans, need to reduce our population numbers if we want to develop a larger, global system that uses such energy, lest we shorten the life of the sun due to the effect such energy has on the surrounding space-time continuum.

How could that happen? The answer is so simple that a middle school student can understand it. But first, here’s some background on the “weirdness” of the new physics you may have read about in your local newspaper.

So, what in the world is “negative energy” and where do we find it?

Human scientists say that normal energy (like light) curves and bends outward into space – it radiates outward in waves and we can track its movement in a positive sort of way. Negative energy (i.e. in gravity or an atom’s nucleus) pulls and cycles inwardly – so it’s negative, in a sense. Since it pulls and connects inwardly, it’s negative. *We aren’t talking about electrical charges, by the way – that’s a different subject.

Like gravity, “negative energy” pulls down into a dense, inner space like what we see in atomic nuclei, while normal energy flows and spreads outward into space. Weirder still, are aliens hint about a kind of inner hyper-space in the universe that allows them to take shortcuts when they travel, faster-than-light, from one location to another.

To give you an idea about how aliens think about this new, negative energy used in their technology and faster-than-light travels, here are some human abductees’ quotes about alien use of energy. Each abductee talks about how alien energy somehow folds into itself and takes a shortcut through a kind of inner space while, at the same time, it expands far, far outward.

When speaking about her passage into alien realms, abductee Julie told Dr. John Mack,
“I expanded outward…” On that plane, “reality folds into itself.”
(p. 55, Passport to the Cosmos).
Ironically, former Eisenhower White House National Security Council staff member Col. Philip Corso wrote that military researchers found that when the downed Roswell craft shifted magnetic poles around the craft,
“it was as if gravity was being folded around the outside so that the wave enveloped the craft.”
In other words, a gravity-like energy folded inward, while, at the same time, the craft rode inside of a kind of wave moving outward. (p. 101, The Day After Roswell)
Physicists note that all quanta seek the lowest energy level, the least action and movement of a stable orbit or configuration.
That constant return to lowest energy level is due to a negative cycle that down-steps through the nucleus while resonating far out across space at the same time. It cycles back into itself. It binds and integrates everywhere. It conserves the universe for a longer duration. It’s the basis for our awareness, and it resonates into extra dimensions precisely.
Some humans may try to say they weren’t aware that such precision was possible, but for those who are aware, there is no excuse.

by David Wilcock
from TimStouse Website
CONSCIOUSNESS

As we look over the theories of aether, we find ourselves confronted with a direct spiritual fact: as was said in the Christian Bible, we live in and move through the body of God at all times.
We saw the clear evidence that the aether is directly connected to consciousness, through findings such as the Backster Effect, the Maharishi effect and the telekinetic experiments with Nina Kulagina and others. We learned of Prof. Shnoll’s studies proving a clear causative relationship between planetary movements and atomic processes – and this was extended to consciousness as well by Cowan’s studies of the effect of planetary movements on financial market movements.

With the new information that we have about the nature of atomic structure, our conventional scientific views seem to be completely inadequate. The only choice that remains for us at this time is to either resist the new information and refuse to acknowledge it, or make some difficult amendments to our most prized paradigms.
And now our scientific ignorance is further exposed by the simple and yet completely new concepts of aether, gravity, inertia and centrifugal force. Without a doubt, Dr. Bruce DePalma’s “Spinning Ball Drop” experiment simply could not be possible unless an object was capable of storing and releasing aetheric / electromagnetic energy within its atomic structure, and interacting with the force of inertia and gravity as it moves through space. Space and matter are fundamentally identical; they simply represent different, interchangeable phases of one unified, vibrating energy source.

With our new realizations about the connection between this same aether and the forces of gravity and inertia, we are truly beginning to see that there is no way for science to slice and dice up the universe into a set of impersonal laws.
Ultimately, the force of gravity is the tendency for this Ultimate Being to seek Oneness within itself, and the force of inertia is the natural energetic resistance that we experience as we move through the body of this Ultimate Being. When all is ultimately a Unified Field of energy, and that energy is ultimately conscious, then we are all part of this vast, interconnected Oneness.
Love, instead of being a vague esoteric concept, becomes simply the tendency for the aether to vibrate in greater harmony with Unity.
VIRTUAL PARTICLES

Any quantum physicist will now tell you that “virtual particles” have been discovered for all of the fundamental components of the atom- protons, neutrons and electrons. What “virtual” means is that they have concluded that even though these “particles” appear to be precisely the same as normal atomic components, they are not connected to any atom and they wink into and out of existence in very short periods of time! Even though this is a highly unusual discovery, they continue to see this simply as a function of particles.
We have a “Big Bang” where Nothing exploded to become Something, and we now have all these particles scattered about to form the Universe, slowly running themselves down into “heat-death” extinction through the law of entropy, which states that everything must die: all order must dissolve into disorder.
But now, when you introduce virtual particles in the mix, we also have to see particles that are appearing and disappearing moment by moment! Where do such particles exist when they are not a part of our “three-dimensional” universe? Would this not be the reverse of entropy? This is certainly not a popular question to ask in the mainstream scientific world, which continues to humanize the Universe with our own issues.
Since the destruction of the earth has become poignantly visible over the last century, it was natural for scientists to assert that the whole Universe was also slipping into inexorable decay. Fundamentally, it is a model without a Supreme Being of any kind – we are all stardust from a giant explosion that is now fizzling out like a spent bottle-rocket.

So how did the idea of virtual particles get established?
We know that one of the two ways that we measure the quantum realm is with “magnetic particle tracking.” An excited burst of energy is entered into a chamber filled with a medium such as fluid or smoke that is illuminated, and the medium in the chamber allows an observer to see the track that the energy makes as it travels. By introducing a magnetic field into the area that is being measured, the energy will naturally travel in a curve, since we have long known that magnetic fields are always rotating and interacting with quantum energies.
Based on the observation of the different kinds of tracks and how they behave, a set series of rules have been applied that allow these spiraling tracks to be interpreted as representing “protons,” “neutrons”, “electrons,” “quarks” or otherwise. So far, so good, it would appear.

As the quantum physicists studied these tracks in closer detail, they realized that these tracks were not simply moving in smooth curving lines; very minor movements were occurring that caused the tracks to slightly bump back and forth as they moved. When they analyzed the areas where the “bumps” occurred, they found that these “bumps” followed the same rules that they applied for “particles:” protons, neutrons, electrons, et cetera. And now we have a problem: these “bumps” only occurred for very brief moments of time, even though they were happening constantly.
So, since their model interpreted these movements as the behavior of “particles,” but their effects were only visible for extremely short periods of time, they concluded that these were “virtual particles.” In other words, they still insist that we must have particles, only now these particles are appearing and disappearing in our existence on a constant basis!

So in the mind of the modern quantum physicist, you could be studying “empty space,” have a proton suddenly show up and a few nanoseconds later it will disappear again. And these are not mere random oddities, either – we are talking about something that is happening constantly, everywhere we look, with an almost feverish intensity.
This is definitely strange, and has certainly created even more problems for the contemporary quantum physicists to work with, based on the models that are now in place. If you still believe that there are “particles” in the Universe, then how do you explain a sea of particles that can simply be there one minute and gone the next? If the universe is simply composed of dead, ’empty’ space, then where did these particles come from?
Dr. Hal Puthoff explains that this bizarre behavior is due to the nature of the aether or “virtual particle flux” itself – the so-called “particles” are indeed emerging from the “energy of the vacuum.”

In a very simplified model of the aether as a fluid, virtual particles could also be seen as being created from a fluid-type medium like water. Whereas an electron, proton or neutron may be seen as a stable, spherical, donut-shaped “whirlpool” in this flowing medium, a virtual particle would simply represent a whirlpool that came and went very quickly – similar to how the ocean is constantly rolling and frothing at the surface.
And thus it is the existence of virtual particles that gave birth to the concept of a “seething cauldron” or “raging sea” of energy.

THE CASIMIR FORCE

The discovery of a “virtual particle flux” helps to explain the peculiarities of the “Casimir effect.” This effect is demonstrated by the following experiment. First, you simply start the Faraday cage, which we remember as being an area that is shielded from all conventional energy fields, and you introduce a complete vacuum inside.
Then, inside that area you take two perfectly flat metallic plates and move them very, very close to each other.
What do you think would happen? Nothing?
We are quick to conclude that this simple experiment shouldn’t “do” anything, since we have examples of flat surfaces touching each other all around us. Why should it be any different if the surfaces are almost microscopically flat and contained in an airless space with no conventional force fields in it? Our intuition will not serve us well when we begin considering this problem, as there is indeed a very real and very powerful effect that takes place.

Under these circumstances, when the two plates are moved together, they will experience a terrific attraction that seems to pull them together with a tremendous amount of force! This is what is known as the “Casimir Force,” named after the man who discovered it. This experimental effect also revealed that if you actually allow the two plates to completely merge, the force that binds them together is so powerful that you literally have to destroy them to get them back apart. Now think about that for a minute; how would one explain a force that could “suck” two plates together? What would happen if every time you used your car, your shoes would get stuck to the pedals and you couldn’t get them off?
Driving would be a very dangerous proposition, especially if you were using a standard shift. That is a rough analogy of what is happening in this experiment, except that in the car there is no vacuum of air and energy and the surfaces of your shoe and the pedal are not flat enough to create the effect.

Now something this simple should have already gotten more attention, and not be such an obscure tidbit of modern science. Most likely, it is not popular because it is a total anomaly that is very difficult to understand or explain with our current scientific models. In order for us to truly understand what is occurring, we will take a similar analogy cited by Ross Tessien, who asks us to visualize a suction cup.
Ask yourself this question: What makes the suction cup attach to the surface? Most people would answer by saying that the cup will stick to a flat surface because it is “sucking” the material and thus attaching itself like glue. Sounds good, right?

However, it is totally the opposite! It is outside pressure and not suction that is responsible for this. Once you push a suction cup onto a flat surface, the edges will make a perfect seal over the surface that does not allow any air to get underneath. Once this seal is firmly established, you still have ten pounds per square inch of air pressure that is pushing down from the outside. So, it is actually the air pressure that is pushing the cup down, since there is now no air left on the inside to push against the cup in the opposite direction.

In zero-point energy theory, it is now believed that the Casimir force works in exactly the same way. This force is created when the distance between the plates becomes so narrow that no “virtual particles” or aetheric energies are able to fit between them. So, there is no “sucking” going on at all; in fact it is a complete absence of energy that exists between the plates, aetheric or otherwise. And so, a form of “aether vacuum” is formed between the two plates, where no aether can flow inside the crack.
Then, the surrounding “virtual particle flux” or aether pressure pushes the plates together from the outside! In Dr. Puthoff’s model, this pressure is believed to be caused by the “virtual particles” themselves, as they will continually emerge from the zero-point energy long enough to exert a constant force upon the plates, thus pushing them together. Either way, it all comes back to a fundamentally aetheric design, and no other model seems to adequately explain why this incredibly powerful Casimir effect would occur.

Bearing this in mind, we are continuing to see how the background aetheric energy plays a role in the world that we can observe. The Casimir effect reveals to us exactly how much pressure the aether is truly exerting on us. And yet, since Dr. Puthoff and most other theorists believe that it always “cancels out” to zero, we can never detect any major changes in the world around us.
Just like the fishes in the sea, we end up saying, “Water? What water?”
Indeed, think about this: do you ever stop and consider the fact that the atmosphere is putting ten pounds of pressure on every square inch of your body all the time? The pressures of the aether would be far greater, but normally speaking, they are undetectable. The force of inertia is only a vague reminder of how much pressure truly exists, when we consider the amount of energetic activity that is occurring at the quantum level.

So where do we find all this tremendous aetheric pressure, if it truly exists? Do we need to play around with metal plates and subatomic particles to see it, or do we have more familiar examples? As we continue to look at all aspects of aetheric science, magnetism ends up becoming one of the most interesting properties of all. In contemporary theory it is always fused together with the electrostatic force that creates electricity, but we can demonstrate that it is clearly a very different animal – and we will see that it has a very straightforward and yet undiscovered geometric identity.
So here, we will cover the properties of magnetism, as ultimately they are very important in understanding the reality of the conscious aether and how it functions in our universe. If we want to understand this Ultimate Being, we must look at what our scientific findings have taught us, and assimilate that new information into our design.
It is very simple for us to hear certain terms that have been defined scientifically and automatically separate them from any conceptualization of God – but if God truly exists, then all aspects of our Universe must be a part of this Being.

MAGNETISM AND ELECTRICITY

[Note: This diagram and others culled from Rockwell International’s Reliance Electric website.]
All of our conventional theories about magnetism and electricity did have their origin in aetheric models, since much of the research was done in the 1800’s when these models were still in vogue.
The “flux lines” formed by the force from a magnet, which we shall discuss below, were once believed to actually represent a physical substance that could be “cut” and harnessed. Even though the aetheric models could suggest that the magnets were drawing energy from the aether itself, the original physicists still believed that the force created by a magnet existed within the magnet itself, not as a force that was being pulled from the surrounding energy of “empty space.” This viewpoint has not changed in all the time since it was formulated; however, we will suggest that it must be in error, and the aetheric model provides us with a perfect alternative.

In an experiments with psychokinesis, both electricity and magnetism could be created and controlled by nothing more than the focus of consciousness – and if the consciousness of the others in the room was predominantly negative, the effect was much more draining on the subject.
Furthermore, the energy surrounding Nina Kulagina’s body would lose half of its strength when she performed these feats, certainly suggesting that she was somehow able to draw in the aetheric energy from around her and use her body to send and transmute it to the object. So if the energy of magnetism can be created from sheer conscious thought alone, it would be difficult to ascribe it to a force that simply exists within the magnet itself.
Magnetism can be created just like gravity and electricity, straight from the consciousness of this Ultimate Being itself – and in the case of Kulagina, it occurs spontaneously around the object in question, with no measurable line of force connecting it to the person inducing the activity.
It literally arises “from the aethers” at the point where it is needed.
5.4.1 E-FIELD AND B-FIELD
Magnetism and electricity are considered to be two components of the same force, namely electromagnetism. Magnetism is referred to as the “B-field” and electricity as the “E-field,” and they are graphed out as a unified wave where the E-field is on the horizontal plane and the B-field is on the vertical plane, 90 degrees of rotation away from its counterpart.
This is based upon careful measurements of the properties of these fields themselves, and is considered to be a contemporary fact.
The picture below shows us a “conventionalized diagram of an (electromagnetic) wave form…” that was reprinted by Enterprise Mission with permission from Ultra High Frequency Radio Engineering by WL Emory, The Macmillan Company.

This diagram allows us to clearly see the observed interplay between the two forces. As we look at the picture, we can see that the two fields are in a constant 90-degree relationship to each other.
This is called an “orthogonal” relationship, and it will become very important when we start looking at the theories surrounding the idea of higher “dimensions” of space. Since the electromagnetic wave forms the basis of our Universe, all theorists who study the concepts of higher dimensions believe that each higher dimension must somehow be located at another 90-degree turn away from the three main axes of length, width and height that we now see! If this sounds confusing or impossible to you, then you’re on the right track! No matter where you turn a corner and rotate 90 degrees, you’re still going to end up in what we would call “three-space.”
This puzzling conclusion of the existence of “higher dimensions” has come from the “crystal ball” of mathematics. Certain equations demonstrate that there must somehow be a way for energy to have “more room” to travel through than what we see in our own “three-space.” However, this doesn’t make it any easier to visualize. Mathematics can often be used to propose solutions to problems without giving us a solid visual model to work with.

When we start looking at Rod Johnson’s model in Chapter 18, we will see that there is a very good reason for the shape of this waveform; it ultimately reveals a hidden geometry inside of itself, and this geometry was independently discovered by James Clerk Maxwell in the 19th century and again by Buckminster Fuller, who announced it to the world at his Planet Planning address in 1969. Johnson was unfamiliar with these earlier discoveries when he independently determined that the same geometric form was being described by the electromagnetic wave.
This unseen geometric structure will prove to be a crucial part of truly understanding how the consciousness of this Ultimate Being forms all of reality that we know, from its own “body.”

5.4.2 DYNAMIC FORCE, STATIC ENERGY
Let us not forget how important this wave really is; it is the primary means through which the energy of the universe is expressed. Another important and puzzling aspect of the behavior of this waveform is that the two components do not at all move in the same fashion. Michael Faraday was the first to determine that magnetic fields were continually rotating – and in scientific terms this means that magnetism is a dynamic field.
However, he also discovered that:
The electric fields do not move at all; they require the dynamic movement of the magnetic wave to propel themselves forward.
The scientific term that was chosen to describe something that does not move is static, so the electric field was called an electrostatic field.

This can be visualized in a very simple way. If you think about an object that floats on the surface of the ocean, it is only the movement of the wind and water that would cause it to move forward – and the behavior of the electric field is very similar. If you only looked at the electric part of this waveform by itself, there would be no directional movement within it. If you ask an engineer why the magnetic field is dynamic and the electric field is static, you will probably get “That’s just the way it is” as your answer. And yet, this is of very obvious importance, as the electromagnetic waveform is the primary means by which energy travels in our universe.
And since Nina Kulagina and others can create these forces by a simple focus of consciousness, and in PK tests with Alla Vinogradova these fields would oscillate in tune with her own body, we know that we are dealing with something much more interesting than what we have been led to believe. This is an active, living energy force in its own right; the primary means by which this Universal Being is continually forming itself. That point cannot be underestimated. Einstein and many others firmly believed that when the Unified Field was discovered, it would prove that all the Universe was composed of electromagnetic fields, not “particles.”

The next important terms that we need to cover are “force” and “energy.” We have already stated that magnetism was given the term “dynamic” because it is consistently moving, and electricity was given the term “static” because it is motionless. Since magnetism was observed to rotate and move in set directions, there needed to be a name for that behavior – and it was called a force. The word “dynamic” is a descriptive word, whereas “force” is an active word, like when discussing the force that you would need to push a heavy object. Therefore, magnetism is a dynamic force, meaning that it is a field that is in motion.

Now in the case of the electric field, Faraday discovered that it was essentially motionless, as we pointed out in our example of a piece of flotsam floating on the surface of the ocean. However, that doesn’t mean that the field has no energy. What we do have is a field that radiates energy away from itself. So if we use our analogy of an object floating on the surface of the ocean again, we could see that as it traveled, it would radiate heat energy from the Sun.
If you put your hand near the object you could feel the radiant, static energy from it, but it would still need the dynamic force of the wind and water to move it along. This is how electricity is able to power our machines. So, whereas force was an active word that meant that the field moved in a given direction, the word “energy” was chosen as the word to represent something that radiates while remaining motionless. Therefore, Faraday named the electric field “electrostatic energy.”

Some readers may be angry right now for our going into such detail about this and would never want to study and remember this information, as it seems to have no relevance to their everyday life. It certainly seems confusing that these two fields travel together and yet have such different properties. If you are baffled as to why energy would behave like this, you are in good company; up until now, scientists did not have a true means of explaining it.
However, in Chapter 18 we will see that Rod Johnson’s model explains it clearly, with a simple geometric design. Although it will sound completely foolish right now, this movement between magnetic and electrostatic fields is actually demonstrating an exchange of energy between two parallel universes, both of which are defined and interconnected with simple geometry!
That is why a description of our world as “three-dimensional” is incorrect – there is an exchange of force and energy between at least two “dimensions,” or areas of “virtual” space, that forms our known reality. So now, we can see that this behavior of the electromagnetic waveform is very important; it contains the secret key to unlock the mysteries of the Cosmic Chess Game, so that we can truly see the “board” and all the “pieces” that are in play.
For now, we will continue to investigate the behavior of the electromagnetic wave for how it relates to the aether theories and technology.
LENZ’ LAW, MOTORS AND GENERATORS

For those readers who are unfamiliar with physics, it may be surprising to realize that magnetism and electricity, which certainly seem to be used as two separate forces in our technology, are always traveling together in this fixed 90-degree relationship where magnetism is dynamic and electricity is static. We know that you cannot have electricity without magnetism and vice versa, and that the two fields will always exist in this very precise geometric arrangement.
Our next important realization is this:
By simply passing a wire over the north or south pole of any magnet, an electric current is generated within that wire.
Anyone who has studied basic electronics knows that moving a wire over a magnet will do this, but they usually never ask why. This simple property, known as Lenz’ Law, ultimately allowed for the creation of both the electric motor and the generator – and we will explain both of these inventions in order to help us understand what is going on.

The electric motor uses this basic connection between magnetism and electricity to power itself. The first and most simple point that we should realize is that when you run electricity through a wire, that wire will become magnetic. If we remember the shape of the electromagnetic wave, the dynamic, rotating magnetic force will always travel at a 90-degree angle to the electrostatic energy.
When you take a large amount of wire and wrap it around something like a nail over and over again, you will form a coil. Then, when you send electricity through the coil, there will be a significantly higher amount of magnetic force generated in a coil of wire than you would ever see from a single wire; the magnetic force will multiply as the coil grows larger.
When industrial electro-magnets are built to a custom design, they can be very expensive because of the amount of time and effort that it takes to wind up huge coils of wire to precise specifications. However, once a design has become more common, the electromagnetic coil can be machine-wound, and this makes it much more cost-effective to produce. This difficulty in custom-designing electromagnets is one of the reasons why so many free energy and anti-gravity researchers have financial problems in trying to build working models of their ideas.

So, if we want to build an electric motor we have to start by realizing that two pieces are involved; a stator and a rotor. The rotor is generally a cylinder-shaped arrangement of electro-magnets, often formed from coils of thin copper wire.
This cylinder has an axle that runs through the center, and it is called a “rotor” due to the fact that the axle allows it to rotate once the motor has been properly built. When electric current is passed through the coiled wires in the rotor, the entire rotor becomes magnetic – and this is how you would create an electro-magnet. If you simply stopped at this point, you would discover that when you ran current through the rotor, you could pick up metallic objects with it, but as soon as you turned the current off, the objects would fall.
This is the standard behavior of an electro-magnet.

Reliance Electric’s diagram of an AC motor, showing the “stator” and “rotor” components.
In order to build a motor, the rotor must be surrounded very closely by a set of permanent magnets. This set of magnets is collectively referred to as the “stator”, since remain static or motionless. [Note: the above diagram is from an AC motor, which is a more complex design that we need not discuss, where electromagnets are also used around the permanent magnets in the stator.]
Typically the rotor is in a cylindrical shape and the stator magnets will be cut to outline the rotor very closely; but they must not ever touch it directly or it wouldn’t be able to rotate freely.

Now we get to the fun part, the process by which the rotor is made to spin. When electric current is passed through the copper wire in the rotor, it becomes magnetized, and the rotating magnetic force from the stator magnets will push against the rotor in the opposite direction, thus causing the rotor to move. [See next image.] This ongoing, rotating magnetic repulsion causes the motor to spin, and the more electric current you run through the central coils of wire, the faster the rotor will rotate on its axle, thus powering your device, such as an electric fan.

In order to truly understand how this rotation takes place, we need to explain the situation a little more carefully. If we look back to the diagram of the E and B-field, we can clearly see that magnetism naturally travels in a 90-degree offset wave motion. This flow is well-known to move between the north to south pole of a magnet.
As we said before, Michael Faraday discovered that all magnetic fields are rotating as they move through space. Thus, due to this spiraling motion from north to south, you can set up a continually rotating magnetic field between the two stator magnets, since one stator magnet will be a north pole and another will be a south pole. With this continual rotation occurring between them, the rotor can be balanced in such a way as to be continually “kicked” on both sides by the rotational movement between the two stator magnets.
In the below diagram, this is explained by seeing how an “induced current flow,” which is simply a term for the electricity sent through the electromagnets in the rotor, is working against the spiraling, rotational flow that occurs between the stator magnets.

Reliance Electric’s diagram of movement within an electromagnetic motor.
GENERATORS OPERATE VERY SIMILARLY

A generator works on exactly the same principle, only in reverse. In this case, you would have a source of mechanical energy, such as a wheel that is being turned by the flowing energy of water from a river, that would spin the rotor from the outside without an electric current. Now, thanks to Lenz’ Law, the conducting copper wires inside the rotor will pick up the magnetism from the stator magnets, and turn it into electricity.
It is this “gathered electromagnetic energy” that creates a current through the wire and generates electricity. This simple principle is responsible for the operation of a hydroelectric power plant, where a large river or waterfall provides the mechanical power to turn a waterwheel that then directly turns the rotor inside.

Conventional scientists never bother to ask why electricity can be created by moving a conducting wire through a magnetic field – it is just considered a simple principle of electromagnetism, assigned a mathematical equation and left alone. However, the simplest law of energy conservation would state that energy can neither be created nor destroyed.
If this is true, then the magnet cannot be creating energy by itself – the energy has to come from somewhere. And yet, a permanent magnet is incredibly durable and will continue emitting magnetism for well over 1000 years with no significant sign of loss. You can still generate as much electricity from it as you want, but many generations would be long dead before it would show the slightest sign of weakening. No one ever worries about having to replace the stators in an electromagnetic motor.

Another interesting property of magnets is that you can rub them over a non-magnetic piece of metal, always in the same straight-lined direction and never backwards, and thus magnetize the object.
This is typically done with screwdrivers to enable them to attract screws so that you won’t lose them as they are being inserted or removed. The current theory behind how one magnetizes metal is that the magnetic energy, which is theoretically stored within the magnet since its creation, is simply transferred into the metal. However, the magnet itself is no weaker after such a process than it was before! You can magnetize as many objects as you want and the magnet does not seem to be affected in any way.
And so, in a very real sense, our current physics treats magnets as an impossibility; a source of perpetual energy that almost never expires. If the energy is “stored within” the magnet itself, then where exactly is it coming from, and why doesn’t it ever dissipate?

THE MYTH OF FLUX CUTTING

When a magnet is held under a piece of paper and iron filings are dropped on top of it, you will see a series of concentric circular lines form from the north pole to the south pole.
These are referred to as “magnetic flux lines,” and they provide a graphic representation of the spiraling fields surrounding the magnet. The current theory is that when you pass a wire or conductor over the magnet, a process known as “flux line cutting” generates the electricity. In other words, the flux lines themselves are seen as being “cut” by the wire as it passes through them, and the energy that would normally be flowing through the flux lines thus empties into the wire.
This is considered so axiomatic that no one would even bother to think that it could be a faulty model. And even though quantum physicists assume that atoms are composed of particles, no one has ever changed the equations for electromagnetism, which treat it as a flowing (yes, aetheric) field of energy waves that can be “cut” in this fashion.
The flowing aether portion of the theory is correct, but the “cutting” is not, as we shall see.

Now remember that in order for flux line cutting to take place in conventional theory, there must be two different speeds of motion; one for the wire (or conductor) and one for the magnet. You can either have the magnet stationary and the conductor in motion, or the conductor stationary and the magnet in motion. In either case, the relative motion between the conductor and the magnet is supposed to “cut” the flux lines and thus create electric current. If you moved the conductor and the magnet at the same time, then you couldn’t “cut” the flux lines and there should be no way to draw electricity through the conductor.
It would be like the proverbial carrot that hangs in front of the donkey – no matter how fast the donkey tries to run to get the carrot, his teeth will never be able to cut into it, because both the donkey and the carrot are moving at the same speed!
5.7.1 FARADAY’S ONE-PIECE GENERATOR
Now, whether we like it or not, there is new information that forces us to throw this entire model of “flux cutting” and relative motion between conductor and magnet out the window, or at least subject it to dramatic changes.
For MIT’s own Dr. Bruce DePalma has reminded us that electric current can be generated with the conductor and the magnet moving at exactly the same speed – thus eliminating any possibility that the flux lines could be “cut.” For if the magnet is moving, the flux lines should automatically be moving along with it in conventional theory.
This bizarre and interesting means of generating electric current was actually discovered by famous pioneer physicist Michael Faraday on Dec. 26, 1831, but until DePalma came along, no one ever paid any attention to it.

DePalma’s prospect is actually quite easy to prove, and he did so many times.
To generate electricity without any “flux line cutting,” you don’t even need anything but one piece that rotates by itself – no “stator magnet” is necessary whatsoever. And that right there would stop most engineers in their tracks. It is believed that you must always have at least two pieces in a generator – the stationary magnet or magnets and the spinning rotor wrapped with wire.
In Faraday’s design, seen in the image above, he took a cylindrical magnet, shaped like a candle with both edges cut perfectly flat, and attached a thin piece of paper over its top edge. Over the paper he cemented on a flat, coin-shaped disc of copper that was several times wider than the cylinder. By its very nature, the copper could conduct electricity, if there was any electricity to conduct. Once cemented together, the two pieces thus had no choice but to spin at exactly the same rate, so no “flux cutting” could occur.

To Faraday’s amazement and bewilderment, when he rotated this object he could extract an electric current from it, even though it was only a rotor – there were no other moving parts! There was a cylinder-shaped magnet and a coin-shaped conductor, and they were both moving at exactly the same speed. All he had to do was to attach a copper “brush” to the outside edge of the conducting disc and another “brush” to the metal axle that touched the center of the disc.
These ‘brushes’ are just what they sound like; pieces of fine copper wire that can touch an object with enough force to conduct electricity, but also lightly enough to permit it to move. The two “brushes” were then wired into the opposite ends of a galvanometer to measure electric current; and indeed, a current could be detected! (A galvanometer uses a needle that moves when electricity is passed through it, as seen in the diagram.) No one in the scientific mainstream will believe that this could work if you try to explain it to them, because it violates the “laws” of electromagnetic energy.

This obviously was a cause of great fascination to Faraday, but he had no means to explain it and thus nothing else was done with it. Here, we will suggest that the magnetic energy itself is like a fluid, and by “throwing” or “spraying” the fluid out to the far edge of the conducting disc through rotation, a current is generated. Essentially, the aetheric energy is being drawn in through the center of the disc and is radiated out the sides. If you could see the basic magnetic energy field as this was happening, it would look like a donut-shaped sphere whose central axis was shared with the axis running through the disc.
The radiated aetheric energy could be visualized in a similar manner as the water that flies off of a wet dog’s body when it shakes itself dry, or the water that is pumped through a hose and released by a rotating sprinkler nozzle to water a person’s yard.

In DePalma’s case, he discovered that even having a separate conductor and magnet was not necessary to produce this effect. All he needed was a single strip of flat, magnetized material that could also conduct electricity.
This strip was then fashioned into a flat, disc shaped spiral like a giant lollipop, such that one end terminated at the spinning axle and the other end terminated at the outside rim of the disc. [See above image.] One pole of the magnet would be wound up into the center, and the other pole of the magnet would be at the outside edge of the spiral. By simply rotating this one-piece magnetic conductor, electric current could be drawn from the disc.

So again, we are doing the impossible – rotating a one-piece magnetized conducting disc and drawing energy out of it. Now this is where the real problem for scientists comes up: time after time, DePalma was able to show that these “homopolar” or one-piece rotating generators were actually superior in performance to the typical two-piece stator and rotor design that we discussed above. In fact, these generators were more than superior; they appeared to be impossible, as they created more electrical energy output than it took to spin them.
It is from this simple and yet incredible principle that DePalma created his own “free energy” device, known as the N-Machine.

5.7.2 THE SUCCESS OF THE N-MACHINE
Now the only way that DePalma’s one piece generator can be possible is if a field such as the aether really did exist for us to draw energy out of.
Without aetheric energy, we would have a closed “perpetual motion” system that would be thought of as impossible, for it cannot sustain itself without drawing in new energy from somewhere; conventional theory indicates that it will continually lose energy from the friction in the air and the movement of the parts inside. In DePalma’s case he referred to the aetheric energy as the “Primordial Energy Field.”
And from these principles, DePalma built the large “Sunburst” single-pole generator “N-Machine” in Santa Barbara, California in 1978, which was a further enhancement on the basic idea of using a rotating magnetized conducting disc. DePalma had the “Sunburst” tested in 1985 by Dr. Robert Kincheloe, Professor Emeritus of Electrical Engineering at Stanford University.
In the abstract of his final report, Kincheloe says the following:
Known for over 150 years, the Faraday homopolar generator has been claimed to provide a basis for so-called “free energy” generation… During 1985 I was invited to test such a machine. While it did not perform as claimed, repeatable data showed anomalous results that did not seem to conform to traditional theory…
After the entire report rigorously critiques and examines all of the data, Kincheloe concludes:
DePalma may have been right in that there is indeed a situation here whereby energy is being obtained from a previously unknown and unexplained source.
This is a conclusion that most scientists and engineers would reject out of hand as being a violation of accepted laws of physics, and if true has incredible implications.

And so, with all of this in mind it is clear that DePalma was harnessing electricity from the zero-point energy source that we are calling the “aether.” So what exactly is magnetism in the new aetheric theories, and why does it work like this? We cannot be content with the old definitions when we can now be sure that something quite strange is going on. Two additional discoveries will help to prove the point even more – namely that the energy in the magnet is not being generated by the magnet itself, but from an outside force that is flowing through the magnet.
THE ASPDEN EFFECT

The first discovery that we will mention to prove that outside aetheric force is flowing through a magnet is that known as the “Aspden effect,” from Cambridge University’s Dr. Harold Aspden. It was presented in the Institute for New Energy’s New Energy News, vol. 2, no. 10, Feb. 1995.
Dr. Aspden’s experiment sounded simple enough, and no one would expect anything unusual to happen from doing it. All he did was to take a magnetized rotor and bring it up to a certain speed of rotation, and then suddenly bring it to a complete, motionless stop, and measure how much energy it took to bring it up to that speed with his instruments. Then, within less than about one minute, he would bring it up to the same speed of rotation again, and measure how much energy it took the second time.

Now any rational-thinking person would expect nothing significant to come out of this.
All we are doing is taking the same magnetized rotor, spinning it up to a certain speed and measuring how much energy it took to do that under two different circumstances; the first one from a dead stop and the second one from a recent rotation. Almost everyone would expect that the amount of energy that it took each time would be the same. There should be no reason for why any residual energy would be left in the magnet after it had just been spinning – it should take the same amount of energy to spin it the second time that it did the first time.
Yet, as you already guessed, this is not what happened:
After a magnet has been rotated and then brought to a complete stop, it will then take roughly ten times less energy to return it to the same speed, providing that it is spun again within less than about 60 seconds.
Yes, it’s really true! You may want to read that sentence again, as its importance can be missed if you are just skimming through – almost anyone can see that this totally violates all known laws of physics. To be more exact, the amount of heat energy that it takes to get the magnetic rotor spinning is measured in joules, and normally in this experiment it would take 1000 joules to get the rotor to spin. However, if you stop its motion and then start it again within less than 60 seconds, it will only take 100 joules to achieve the same effect! In other words, it is ten times easier to spin the magnet once it has already been spinning.

So how could this be happening?
If we remember that the aetheric energy that makes up all of physical matter is creating it moment by moment from a spinning motion, then we can see the following:
The energy within the magnet itself will continue “spinning” inside even when the magnet is not moving.
If we compared a magnet to a glass, then it becomes easier to see. A glass, of course, is a container that can hold a given amount of liquid inside of it. If we see the magnet as a container for a non-physical aetheric “fluid,” it becomes very simple. If you were to stir up a glass of water and then remove the stirring rod, it will naturally take less energy to stir up the water in the glass again if you wait less than a minute before trying.
Even though the glass itself wouldn’t have moved, the water would still be spinning inside as it remained still. So from this experiment, we can see that it certainly appears that the energy in a magnet itself is in a form of direct fluid motion, which is quite different from how we are normally accustomed to visualizing it. This should leave no doubt in anyone’s mind that we have not yet uncovered the true mysteries of the electromagnetic field. Just as the blood flows through the body, so too does the very conscious energy of Life itself exhibit flowing motion, supporting and upholding the body of this Ultimate Being on a moment to moment basis.
When we think back to the light, sound and geometry components of vibration that were mentioned in Chapter Four, it should come as no surprise later in the book when we start seeing the signatures of these vibrations in many different areas of study, including quantum physics, gravity and astrophysics.

DONALD ROTH AND “MAGNETIC MEMORY”

The second discovery to prove that magnetism is a movement of energy outside the magnet itself was made by Donald Roth, and presented to the Institute for New Energy at their First Aetheric Conference on July 19-20, 1997. The presentation was later written up in New Energy News, vol. 5, no. 4, Aug. 1997 as follows. As you read the article, remember that the “magnetic torsion beam” being described is simply akin to a bar magnet that is hanging on a string.
We have italicized part of the last sentence for emphasis.
In another experiment, a magnetic torsion beam was suspended and balanced at its center. A strong magnet is then placed on a table with one pole extended toward the suspended torsion beam. After many oscillations, the beam would be attracted to the opposite pole of the magnet on the table.
Donald Roth reports that after five days the magnet can be removed at considerable distance from the balanced torsion beam but that the beam will still be attracted as though the magnet was still there.
And so, it would appear that if a magnet stays in one place for a long enough period of time, it can actually cause the aether flowing through the objects around it to move in a certain anisotropic (non-uniform) direction instead of an isotropic (uniform or “same in all directions”) one. The simple presence of the magnet at a distance provides the extra energy necessary to keep this flow going.
This is similar to the idea of a “siphon.” If you suck water through a hose and place the bottom of the hose at a lower level than where the water is that you are siphoning from, then the water will continue to empty out of the hose until the entire supply runs out. This is explained by the fact that there is much greater atmospheric pressure, in pounds per square inch, pressing on the surface of the water, as opposed to the much smaller amount of pressure that is on the water that emerges from the end of the hose.

In the case of Donald Roth’s experiment, if magnetism is a “flow” in the aether, it appears that once you “get it going” through a local area of space, it can continue at the same force with the magnet itself being much farther away from the point of action. It is as if a temporary aetheric current is set up in the space-time fabric itself – certainly not a “typical” property of magnetism by anyone’s definition. And right away, when we start looking at these new concepts of magnetism, we should be thinking in our minds of various ways in which these yet-unknown properties could be harnessed for technological purposes.
We are already well aware that the psychics in the Soviet studies of psychokinesis were able to harness it by thought alone!

CONVENTIONAL EXPLANATION FOR MAGNETISM AND AETHER ALTERNATIVES

Now by this point, we must be getting more and more curious as to how the magnet actually functions in this new aetheric model. How does the magnet attract certain types of metal to itself? We know that some form of energy appears to be flowing in through the north pole and out through the south pole, thus forming a magnetic current that creates a dynamic, rotating force.
We also have postulated that nothing exists in the Universe but the conscious aether itself, the lifeblood of the Ultimate Being; so we are not simply studying meaningless information, but learning the specifics of how this Oneness has chosen to exist.
Now here is the key that explains magnetism to the conventional thinker:
In a piece of magnetized material, the majority of the molecules are oriented in the same north-south direction.
Providing that you have the right type of metal, you will achieve a magnetic force when this north-south molecular alignment is in place. In conventional atomic theory, there is the assumption that atoms have various “shells” in which “electrons” are orbiting.
These assumptions have allowed us to study the atomic level and interpret our data, but they are by no means proven facts, as we shall see. In this conventional thought process, each metal has a certain number of electrons in its outer shells, and some of these electrons will only “want” to spin in one direction. In other metals such as iron, the outside electrons can spin in many different directions, and the flowing presence of a magnetic field can organize them so that they all spin together. At this point, each atom becomes a miniature magnet in its own right.

Now think about this in terms of aether flow. If each atom of each molecule is formed by a whirlpool in the aether, then there has to be a direction for the whirlpool to be spinning. Most of the compounds on Earth are non-magnetic, non-conducting “dielectric” materials, meaning that they do not conduct electricity easily and their molecules are not all aligned in the same direction. In this case, as they are continually created by the aether, the fluid-like energy will stream into them from all different directions equally; or to put it in more technical terms, the streaming aether flow is isotropic, meaning “the same in all directions.”

In the case of a magnetic material, it appears that the aether flow is anisotropic, meaning that it is not the same in all directions; instead, the flow has a specific orientation.
And thus:
The rotating magnetic force of a magnet is nothing more than the aether flow itself as it creates the magnet moment by moment.

Since the molecules of the magnet are all aligned in a certain direction and are good “conductors,” aether will only flow through it in a certain direction, like water flowing through a pipe.
The north-south orientation of the “electron orbits” in the molecules of the magnet cause it to draw almost all of the aether that forms it in from the north pole and back out through the south pole, creating a loop. The magnet is not created like any other object in our physical reality – instead, there is a definite direction to the energy that streams through it. And it is this directional flow of aetheric energy that creates what we term as magnetism.

At this point it is natural to get more specific about how a magnet can attract other metals to itself that are not already magnetized. Contemporary physicists consider it a fact that certain metals have their outer electrons orbiting in such a way that they can spin in a number of directions – but not all metals have the proper electron configurations to allow this to occur.
And as we said, in many metals such as iron, it is currently believed that the outer electrons can realign with the direction of magnetic flow, and thus each atom within the metal also becomes polarized in a north-south direction and thus turns into a miniature magnet while within the larger magnetic field. In this way, then, the metal is capable of being “reoriented” by the magnetic field so that aetheric energy flows through it in an anisotropic or “directional” fashion.

Then we must ask how this relates directly to aether theory. In fact, it is not much different than when a floating object falls into the current of the river and is swept away by it. The current of aether that streams through the magnet is in a constant state of movement, and when the electromagnetic fields of certain metals align themselves with that force, the metal is then caught up by that flow and pushed towards the magnet, which becomes like an aether sink, sucking in the aether around it with strong force.
The current will always flow from negative to positive, causing the opposite poles to attract each other, and the atoms in the metal will simply adopt this same polarity when they are subjected to the magnetic field.

THE IMPORTANCE OF VIBRATION

If we determine that the Aspden effect and other findings of magnetism are truly showing us that the aether behaves like a fluid, then we also know that the fluid can and must be able to vibrate, by definition. Therefore, we can expect that we should see all of the trademarks of vibration – light, sound and geometry – throughout our Universe, from the quantum to Galactic level.

When we consider all of these points together, magnetism becomes a “whole new ball game,” as one might like to say. The implications are quite profound, as it proves that it is indeed very possible for us to harness a limitless supply of this fundamentally conscious “free energy” and never have to worry about scarcity or pollution again. The only thing that stands in the way at this point are the “powers that be” who are all too ready to squash anyone who tries to build, patent and mass-produce devices of this type.
But eventually, if more people become able to perform feats such as Nina Kulagina and refine their operation, then we should be able to power all of our devices simply by psychokinesis!

In the next chapter, we will detail what happens when you put together the magic combination – magnetism and rotation – to produce workable anti-gravity machines.
No longer will the idea of antigravity propulsion seem so impossible, once the facts are presented.

RECAP

And so, as we look over the information that we have covered, the ever-elusive property of magnetism starts to look very different:
1 First of all, a magnetic field can be created through nothing more than the focus of a gifted individual’s consciousness, and that force arises from the aetheric flux spontaneously, with no measurable connection to the person.

2 “Virtual Particles” have allegedly been discovered for each of the main components of the atom. Although we will question their true nature in this book, the fact remains that this shows that we are living in a universe of unseen forces.

3 The “Casimir Effect” says that when two perfectly flat plates are brought together in an airless vacuum that is shielded from all conventional electromagnetic waves, a powerful force will cause them to push towards each other. This is another means of proving that the zero-point energy field or ‘aether’ truly exists.

4 In the new model, magnetism is caused by the movement of aether through an object, and can be created by consciousness alone, as in the cases of Kulagina, Vinogradova and others.
1 When we study the electromagnetic wave, magnetism is referred to as the “B-field” and electrostatics as the “E-field.” For some yet-unexplained reason, the two are observed to travel at 90-degree angles to each other. Both Buckminster Fuller and Rod Johnson independently discovered a hidden geometry in this movement, which will be discussed later.

2 We see that the static energy of the electric field is essentially motionless, and it requires the dynamic force of the magnetic field to propel it forward. We have suggested that the actual electromagnetic wave is occurring as a result of a flow of energy and force between two parallel universes, for want of a better term, and will go into more detail about this in Chapter 18.
5 Lenz’ Law states that by simply passing a wire over the north or south pole of any magnet, an electric current is generated within that wire. This principle can be used to build electromagnetic motors since the magnetic field naturally rotates.

6 The same principle in reverse can be used to build generators as well. Lenz’ Law states that conducting wires can gather up the magnetism from a magnet and turn it into electricity.

7 Even though quantum physicists assume that atoms are composed of particles, no one in the mainstream has ever changed the equations for electromagnetism, which treat it as a flowing (yes, aetheric) field of energy waves that can be “cut”.
This is called “flux line cutting,” and in order for it to take place in conventional theory, there must be two different speeds of motion; one for the source of magnetic energy and one for the conductor of the energy.
1 The work of Michael Faraday in 1869 proved that electric current can be generated with the conductor and the magnet moving at exactly the same speed – thus eliminating any possibility that the flux lines could be “cut.” Faraday and DePalma’s “homopolar generator” experiments show us that when a magnet is rotated as a disc, magnetic energy can be caused to eject outward like the water in a sprinkler system, and this energy can be harnessed to create electricity. And the sheer volume of energy that this rotation creates is greater than the energy needed to rotate it in the first place!

2 DePalma built the “Sunburst N-Machine” upon these “homopolar generator” principles, as a legitimate free-energy machine. It was tested in 1985 by Dr. Robert Kincheloe, Professor Emeritus of Electrical Engineering at Stanford University, who concluded that “DePalma may have been right in that there is indeed a situation here whereby energy is being obtained from a previously unknown and unexplained source.”
8 The energy coming through the magnet itself appears to behave more like a fluid than a force. When a magnet is spun and then stopped quickly, the Aspden effect reveals that energy is still spinning inside of it. A rotating magnetic disc that took 1000 joules of energy to reach a certain rotational speed can be abruptly stopped in its rotation, and if it is started again within 60 seconds, it will only take 100 joules to reach the same speed. This suggests that the magnetic energy is swirling around inside like water in a glass, even when the magnet is not moving.

9 The experiments of Donald Roth demonstrated a form of “magnetic memory.” The aether flow known as “magnetism” can be established in one localized area if the magnet is kept there for a long time, and then if the magnet is moved farther away, the force field that it established can continue flowing. This gives definite proof that the energy in the magnet is outside of the magnet itself.

10 The conventional explanation for a magnetic field is that it is caused by a given metal having a special north-south alignment of its molecules. In aetheric theory, this alignment forces the aetheric energy that creates the object to flow through it like a tube in a certain direction, instead of flowing in and out of it from all directions equally. This is the true definition of magnetism.

11 The fluidlike qualities of magnetic energy make a strong suggestion that vibration will play an important part in the behavior of “aetheric” energy.

Links:

Alien, Ego and souls

Behind the current coup, alien intervention

Humanity and planet earth.

Weaponization of viruses for the greater good?

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